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Kimberly E. Klockow, Renee A. McPherson, and Daniel S. Sutter

Roberts Noble Foundation 2010 ). The foundation focuses on operations in southern Oklahoma and northern Texas. All correspondence for this study was conducted in person at its Ardmore, Oklahoma, research campus. The FSA is a branch of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), whose goal is to achieve economically and environmentally optimal solutions for agriculture, involving an array of specific programs that may vary by state and are implemented at local offices. Correspondence with the FSA was

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L. Bruce Railsback

nations listed in Table 2 , one of the most striking claimants to distant islands is Australia, which administers islands more than 3800 km away, greater than the distance across Australia itself. Reinhard (2011) used the term “sub-imperialism” to characterize Australia’s role in administering parts of the more general British empire, probably more with regard to history than to the present, but Australia’s present distant claims in the Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans suggest the geographic

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Ryan P. Crompton, K. John McAneney, Keping Chen, Roger A. Pielke Jr., and Katharine Haynes

unlikely to be detected in at least storm and flood losses in the near future ( Höppe and Pielke 2006 ), patterns of behavior characteristic of meteorological cycles such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have been identified in normalized Atlantic Ocean hurricane damages ( Pielke and Landsea 1999 ). ENSO and another coupled ocean–atmosphere oscillation, the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), are also known to influence the weather and climate of eastern Australia ( McBride and Nicholls 1983 ; Power et

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Christopher T. Emrich and Susan L. Cutter

1. Introduction The southern United States is particularly at risk to extreme natural events associated with climate-sensitive hazards such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and sea level rise. Even in the absence of climate change, exposure to climate variability and climate-related extremes ( Goklany 2005 ; Thomalla et al. 2006 ) could mean potential increases in stronger hurricanes, heavier precipitation events leading to increased flooding, more frequent extensive droughts, and potential

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Jessica Kuonen, Flaxen Conway, and Ted Strub

1. Introduction Integrated coastal observing and modeling systems have substantially advanced the quality of regional ocean forecasts, creating a need to transform these activities into products that can serve end users outside the scientific community ( Flemming 2002 ; IFSOO 2012 ; Kourafalou et al. 2015 ; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2017b ). Ocean forecasts have the potential to serve a diverse set of marine-operations end users including commercial shipping

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Thomas W. Corringham and Daniel R. Cayan

conditions in the western United States (e.g., Dettinger et al. 1998 ; Cayan et al. 1998 ; Gershunov and Barnett 1998 ). El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a recurring interannual global pattern of ocean-climate variability, driven by sea surface temperature and air pressure differentials in the tropical Pacific ( Philander 1990 ). The boreal winter signature phases of the oscillation, El Niño and La Niña, are associated with floods, droughts, and weather disturbances globally. As they affect

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Katherine Foxhall

maritime environment. Travelers to Australia crossed through temperate, tropical, and stormy oceans as they sailed first through the Northern and then through the Southern Hemisphere. Many of these voyages effectively crossed the Atlantic twice; from the vicinity of Madeira, captains utilized the trade winds, sailing southwest toward Brazil and the equator, and then southeast to round the Cape of Good Hope, before sailing east across the Southern Ocean. The tropics form a belt around the earth from 23

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Veronica Makuvaro, Cyril T. F. Murewi, John Dimes, and Ignatius Chagonda

precipitation and temperature extremes. Zimbabwe is a land-locked country situated in southern Africa. The atmospheric circulation over southern Africa is dominated by the position and strength of the subtropical anticyclones of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The rainfall mostly occurs as a result of the northward and southward migration of the ITCZ and the westerly cloud bands that result from the tropical temperate troughs (TTTs) ( Mason and

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Trevor Grout, Yang Hong, Jeffrey Basara, Balabhaskar Balasundaram, Zhenyu Kong, and Satish T. S. Bukkapatnam

greater impact. This study examines high-impact winter storms that occurred across Oklahoma (located in the southern United States) over a 10-yr period spanning 2000–10 to determine the climatological relevance of the events and economic impacts based on federal aid expenditures. When analyzed on a regional scale, Changnon (2007) found that catastrophic winter storms were most frequent in the northeast United States and least frequent in the western United States. Further, despite a decreasing

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Julie A. Silva and Corene J. Matyas

lies between 11° and 27°S latitude within the southern Indian Ocean basin, a latitudinal zone that favors the tracks of tropical cyclones ( Ash and Matyas 2012 ; Fig. 1 ). Mozambique experiences approximately two landfalling storms every three years ( Matyas and Silva 2013 ), which can result in flooding rainfall and wind-related damage. Fig . 1. Map of Mozambique with village locations in nine rainfall zones. Rainfall in Mozambique is highly variable from year to year ( Washington and Preston

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