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Justin Sheffield, Suzana J. Camargo, Rong Fu, Qi Hu, Xianan Jiang, Nathaniel Johnson, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Seon Tae Kim, Jim Kinter, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Eric Maloney, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, J. David Neelin, Sumant Nigam, Zaitao Pan, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Richard Seager, Yolande L. Serra, De-Zheng Sun, Chunzai Wang, Shang-Ping Xie, Jin-Yi Yu, Tao Zhang, and Ming Zhao

in Li and Xie (2012) , tropical SST biases in CMIP models are linked to model errors in cloud cover and ocean dynamics, with equatorial cold tongue biases closely tied to errors in thermocline depth and upwelling. Fig . 10. Composite DJF El Niño (a) precipitation (mm day −1 ) and (b) SST (°C) difference between the high and low performance CMIP5 ensemble described in Fig. 8 . Stippling indicates differences that are statistically significant at the 5% level. (c) DJF SST climatology difference

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Hailong Liu, Chunzai Wang, Sang-Ki Lee, and David Enfield

activity ( Wang et al. 2006 , 2008a , b , 2011 ), so it is important to evaluate how well coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) represent this variability. Liu et al. (2012 , hereafter LWLE12 ) have studied the AWP variability against observations in 22 CGCMs from phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3), concluding that most CMIP3 CGCMs suffer from a marked cold SST bias in the AWP region but that there is always one group of CGCMs that is able to represent well each

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