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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

the zonal tilt of the equatorial Pacific thermocline, evidenced by the negative (positive) temperature anomalies within the main thermocline in the west (east; Fig. 6b ). The anomalous westerlies also weaken the upwelling along the equator and generally reduce the strength of the subtropical meridional overturning circulation cells ( Fig. 6c ). Unlike El Niño, however, the largest warming occurs beneath the main thermocline (below 300 m) in the western equatorial Pacific ( Fig. 6b ) and south of

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Aaron B. Wilson, David H. Bromwich, and Keith M. Hines

1. Introduction The southern annular mode (SAM), the dominant mode of atmospheric circulation variability in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), has been identified in numerous variables, including mean sea level pressure (MSLP), geopotential height, and zonal wind (e.g., Rogers and van Loon 1982 ; Karoly 1990 ; Kiladis and Mo 1998 ; Gong and Wang 1999 ; Thompson and Wallace 2000 ; Simmonds and King 2004 ). The SAM represents oscillations in atmospheric mass between the mid- and high latitudes

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Graham R. Simpkins, Yannick Peings, and Gudrun Magnusdottir

west, encouraging a La Niña–like SST pattern ( Fig. 3a , shading). In addition, westward wind anomalies over much of the Indo/western Pacific enhance the thermocline through shoaling in the east and deepening in the west, further encouraging anomalous SST conditions, especially in the central Pacific. Such atmospheric conditions can similarly be expressed as perturbations to the zonal Walker circulation ( Fig. 3b ). Latent heat release over the equatorial Atlantic promotes a pattern of negative

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

to tropical SST changes ( Chen et al. 1996 ; Bals-Elsholz et al. 2001 ); 3) anomalous mean meridional and zonal circulations and associated heat fluxes ( Carleton and Whalley 1988 ; Cullather et al. 1996 ; Kreutz et al. 2000 ; Liu et al. 2002 ; Seager et al. 2003 ; Liu et al. 2004 ; Yuan 2004 ); and 4) altered transient eddy activity ( Carleton and Carpenter 1990 ; Carleton and Fitch 1993 ; Sinclair et al. 1997 ; Carleton and Song 2000 ). Through the atmospheric connection, ENSO events

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