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David Halpern, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Xiaochun Wang

core depth varies from 225 m to 75 m. No such in situ current measurements occur in the NECC. In contrast to the very small number of direct current observations, currents generated with an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) constrained by observations provide an exceedingly large number of virtual current meters, which invites exploration of their utility in studies of ocean circulation. The tenet of faith that an OGCM constrained by observations would yield a significantly different

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James A. Cummings and Ole Martin Smedstad

applicability of traditional isopycnic coordinate circulation models toward shallow coastal seas and unstratified parts of the World Ocean. It maintains the significant advantages of an isopycnal model in stratified regions while allowing more vertical resolution near the surface and in shallow coastal areas, hence providing a better representation of the upper-ocean physics. HYCOM is configured with options for a variety of mixed-layer submodels. This version uses the K -profile parameterization (KPP) of

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Norihisa Usui, Yosuke Fujii, Kei Sakamoto, and Masafumi Kamachi

assimilation systems (e.g., Cummings et al. 2009 ; Dombrowsky et al. 2009 ; Hurlburt et al. 2009 ), some of which adopt the variational assimilation scheme. Weaver et al. (2003) applied an incremental 3DVAR and 4DVAR approach to the Parallel Ocean model ( Madec et al. 1998 ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Ishikawa et al. (2009) developed a 4DVAR assimilation system with an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM) in the western North Pacific to represent realistic mesoscale features in

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