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Shijian Hu, Ying Zhang, Ming Feng, Yan Du, Janet Sprintall, Fan Wang, Dunxin Hu, Qiang Xie, and Fei Chai

1. Introduction Oceanic salinity plays an important role in the climate system due to its significant influence on oceanic stratification and barrier layers ( Sprintall and Tomczak 1992 ; Thompson et al. 2006 ; Balaguru et al. 2016 ) and ocean circulation ( Gordon et al. 2003 ; Feng et al. 2015 ; Hu and Sprintall 2016 , 2017a , b ), and has a close link to the global hydrological cycle ( Durack and Wijffels 2010 ; Durack et al. 2012 ). Investigation of ocean salinity variability and

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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

1. Introduction The advent of satellite remote sensing in the past few decades has facilitated the study of upper-ocean circulation greatly. In comparison, information about the subthermocline ocean circulation has been lacking until the construction of the Argo float arrays in the world oceans, which have provided unprecedented data coverage over the subsurface global oceans. Using the P-vector absolute geostrophic currents based on Argo profiles, Yuan et al. (2014) studied the mean North

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

1. Introduction The warm pool in the tropical western Pacific, including the Maritime Continent (MC), is one of the most convective regions on Earth. It contributes substantial energy to drive the atmospheric general circulation and global climate system. Within the warm pool, the MC plays a critical role in influencing the fluctuations in global atmospheric energy and hydrological cycles by inducing tropical heating and exciting poleward-emanating Rossby waves ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). The

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Xiang Li, Dongliang Yuan, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep Sandra, Ahmad Bayhaqi, Praditya Avianto, Edi Kusmanto, Dirham Dirhamsyah, and Zainal Arifin

). Observations show that the thermocline waters from the North Pacific Ocean enter the Makassar Strait, which is the western route of the ITF, consisting of the most transport for the ITF ( Gordon et al. 1999 ; Susanto and Gordon 2005 ; Gordon et al. 2008 ; Susanto and Song 2015 ; Gordon et al. 2019 ). In addition, water transport through the Maluku Sea and the Halmahera Sea can contribute to the ITF, which is the eastern route of the ITF ( Gordon 2005 ). Sporadic observations have suggested that salty

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

an El Niño event, and then movement of heat laterally and major adjustments in the vertical distribution of heat and the thermocline during the course of the event as the trade winds relax and the Bjerknes feedback processes kick in. The atmosphere plays a vital role as a bridge among the oceans and to the extratropics through changes in the atmospheric circulation and associated surface fluxes, resulting in a significant diabatic component, as heat is ultimately radiated to space and lost

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Jian Ling, Yuqing Zhao, and Guiwan Chen

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is the dominant component of intraseasonal (30–90 days) variability in the tropics. It consists of a circulation of planetary zonal scales coupled with organized deep convection. Its convection usually forms over the central Indian Ocean, propagates eastward across the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent (MC) and warm pool along the equator at an average speed of about 5 m s −1 , and disappears over the central

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