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Carl Wunsch and Raffaele Ferrari

his “abyssal recipes” paper that, along with the Stommel–Arons schematic, provided the framework for the next several decades of the understanding the deep ocean circulation, thought of as dynamically relatively spatially uniform. This subject will be revisited below. Attempts at a theory of the thermocline that would predict the stratification and baroclinic flows forced by the surface winds started with linear perturbation methods ( Stommel 1957 ; cf. Barcilon and Pedlosky 1967 ). But because

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David S. Battisti, Daniel J. Vimont, and Benjamin P. Kirtman

–ocean system in the tropical Pacific. These intermediate coupled models typically employ equations describing the adiabatic adjustment of an ocean basin to wind stress forcing and assume one or two vertical baroclinic modes (see section 4c ). Numerous studies have forced ocean general circulation models and linearized, adiabatic ocean models of the tropical Pacific with the observed history of wind stress. These studies find a reasonably good agreement between the observed and simulated thermocline and

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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

is characterized by large-scale ocean–atmosphere coupling in the tropical Pacific associated with the so-called Bjerknes feedback process (e.g., Bjerknes 1966 , McPhaden 1999 ). This process involves the interannual variation of the strength of the Walker circulation and the associated changes of the tropical Pacific trade wind. The latter causes seesaw of the zonal slope of the thermocline or zonal SSH gradient across the basin, which induces variation in the zonal SST gradient that in turn

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Guoxiong Wu and Yimin Liu

vorticity source over the TP. The review also covers the importance of the thermal influences of the TP on the seasonal circulation transition and Asian monsoon onset based on different datasets and numerical experiments ( Ye and Gao 1979 ; Tao and Chen 1987 ; Wu et al. 1997 , 2002 ; X. Liu et al. 2001 ; Y. Liu et al. 2001 ; Liu et al. 2002 ; Mao et al. 2002a , b ; Wang and LinHo 2002 ). This paper is an effort to review the evaluation of the heating source on the TP through the analyses of

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

. Analysis and modeling of circulation physics might have grown faster with a stronger observational database, but the early database grew slowly because few observations could be made without elaborate and expensive gear between observer and target. Scarce measurements and a big ocean challenged modeling and emphasized getting more numerous and better observations. At the same time, modeling was a way to evaluate observations, provided rational array designs, and motivated observations of physical

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Kerry Emanuel

-level winds in steering hurricanes ( Viñes 1885 ). 1 As valuable as these contributions were, almost nothing was known about the vertical structure of tropical cyclones, or the basic physical mechanism that drives them. Indeed, up through the 1930s, it was widely believed, on the basis of the observed rapid diminution of surface winds after landfall, that their circulation extended upward only 3 km or so, while the reigning theory for their power source was that of James Pollard Espy, who had surmised by

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