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Charlène Feucher, Guillaume Maze, and Herlé Mercier

-do/dti-mut/02-084, 85 pp. Cessi, P. , 2007 : Regimes of thermocline scaling: The interaction of wind stress and surface buoyancy . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 37 , 2009 – 2021 , doi: 10.1175/JPO3103.1 . Daniault, N. , Mazé J. , and Arhan M. , 1994 : Circulation and mixing of Mediterranean water west of the Iberian Peninsula . Deep-Sea Res. I , 41 , 1685 – 1714 , doi: 10.1016/0967-0637(94)90068-X . De Boyer Montégut, C. , Madec G. , Fischer A. S. , Lazar A. , and Iudicone D. , 2004

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Yasutaka Goto, Ichiro Yasuda, and Maki Nagasawa

1. Introduction Vertical turbulent mixing is one of the main physical processes that control the ocean meridional overturning circulation and the vertical transport of heat, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and other materials. However, observation of turbulence is scarce even in the present day due to the difficulty of measuring a few centimeters of microstructure to estimate turbulence intensity. Turbulence measurements have usually been conducted by free-fall or free-rise profilers with velocity

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Werenfrid Wimmer and Ian S. Robinson

Abstract

Measurements of sea surface temperature at the skin interface () made by an Infrared Sea Surface Temperature Autonomous Radiometer (ISAR) have been used for a number of years to validate satellite sea surface temperature (SST), especially high-accuracy observations such as made by the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). The ISAR instrument accuracy for measuring is ±0.1 K (Donlon et al.), but to satisfy Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO) principles and metrological standards (Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology), an uncertainty model is required. To develop the ISAR uncertainty model, all sources of uncertainty in the instrument are analyzed and an uncertainty value is assigned to each component. Finally, the individual uncertainty components are propagated through the ISAR retrieval algorithm to estimate a total uncertainty for each measurement. The resulting ISAR uncertainty model applied to a 12-yr archive of measurements from the Bay of Biscay shows that 77.6% of the data are expected to be within ±0.1 K and a further 17.2% are within 0.2 K.

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Robert Pinkel

to Eq. (14) and the observed intensity gradient fields. Do this for all times, both when the ship is moving and stopped. Form the corrected beam velocities V corr [Eq. (12) ]. Use the corrected velocities with ships navigation to determine absolute ocean velocity. REFERENCES Garrett, C. J. R. , and Munk W. H. , 1972 : Space-time scales of internal waves . Geophys. Fluid Dyn. , 2 , 225 – 264 . Gregg, M. C. , 1989 : Scaling turbulent dissipation in the thermocline . J. Geophys. Res

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Lingsheng Meng, Wei Zhuang, Weiwei Zhang, Angela Ditri, and Xiao-Hai Yan

efforts have been made to quantify the long-term sea level trend and the part due to anthropogenic contributions ( Merrifield and Maltrud 2011 ; Hamlington et al. 2013 , 2014 ). Nevertheless, sea level variations on interannual and decadal time scales have larger magnitudes than long-term trends and thus have an essential influence on the oceanic and atmospheric circulations and climate change ( Qiu and Chen 2012 ; Feng et al. 2010 , 2011 ; Merrifield and Maltrud 2011 ). Lee and McPhaden (2008

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C. Shaji and A. Gangopadhyay

1. Introduction Every regional ocean has both coastal circulation components and influences from offshore regions. Over the past decade, the feature-oriented regional modeling approach ( Gangopadhyay et al. 1997 ; Gangopadhyay and Robinson 2002 ; Gangopadhyay et al. 2003 ; Brown et al. 2005a, b, manuscripts submitted to J. Ocean Eng .) has evolved to a systems configuration. This methodology is model independent and can be applied in lieu of satellite or in situ observations, especially in

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Peng-Qi Huang, Yuan-Zheng Lu, and Sheng-Qi Zhou

important. In this study we proposed a new objective method, referred to as the “relative variance method” ( Rel Var ), that is based on the automated estimation, over the depth span from the surface to each profile depth, of the standard deviation normalized by the maximum variation of the temperature or density. The depth of the minimum value of the relative variance is identified as the MLD. The effectiveness of this new method is evaluated using the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) data

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A. Alvarez and B. Mourre

covariance inferred from gliders observations. b. Validation The volumetric reconstructions resulting from both estimation procedures are displayed in Fig. 3 as superposition of isothermal surfaces. Qualitatively, the optimal interpolation estimate is characterized by higher temperatures in the surfacemost layer and a more pronounced eastward deepening of the thermocline compared to the spline estimate. The differences between temperature estimates and observational values along the ScanFish track are

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Li Li and Mark Wimbush

(period> 1.4 days). At the dominant ~12-day period thedeeper site shows the higher local T, d coherence. To investigate the possibility of using bottom temperature beneath the Gulf Stream as a measure of itsinfluence on shelf circulation, the coherences of longshore current at the shelf break with these measuredbottom temperatures and thermocline depths werecomputed (Fig. 4). At I the coherence with bottomtemperature was very similar in form to the coherencewith thermocline depth, being

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Ross Hendry

and contours of the temperature at 200 dbarfrom a hydrographic survey carried out by CSS Dawson in September1983. Station numbers posted on the plan are referred to in the text.The 15-C isotherm emphasized in the figure was used as an axis forthe Gulf Stream and the minimum normal distance from each stationto this axis was used as a cross-stream coordinate.where the maximum vertical temperature gradient isfound near 800 dbar, to the cold side of the stream,where the permanent thermocline shallows

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