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Audrey Delpech, Claire Ménesguen, Yves Morel, Leif N. Thomas, Frédéric Marin, Sophie Cravatte, and Sylvie Le Gentil

1. Introduction The deep equatorial and tropical circulation is organized into systems of alternating eastward and westward jets ( Firing 1987 ; Firing et al. 1998 ; Johnson et al. 2002 ; Ollitrault et al. 2006 ; Ascani et al. 2010 ; Cravatte et al. 2012 ; Ollitrault and Colin de Verdière 2014 ; Qiu et al. 2013 ; Cravatte et al. 2017 ). We distinguish in particular (i) meridionally alternating off-equatorial jets with a meridional scale of ~3° within the 15°S–15°N latitude range, which

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Alain Colin de Verdière and Michel Ollitrault

-030.1 . Paillet , J. , and H. Mercier , 1997 : An inverse model of the eastern North Atlantic general circulation and thermocline ventilation . Deep-Sea Res. , 44 , 1293 – 1328 , doi: 10.1016/S0967-0637(97)00019-8 . Park , Y. H. , and J. M. Guernier , 2001 : A simple method for diagnosing the bottom current field of the World’s Oceans . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 31 , 972 – 990 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<0972:ASMFDT>2.0.CO;2 . Park , Y. H. , F. Vivier , F. Roquet , and E

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François Ascani, Eric Firing, Julian P. McCreary, Peter Brandt, and Richard J. Greatbatch

pp . Ascani , F. , E. Firing , P. Dutrieux , J. P. McCreary , and A. Ishida , 2010 : Deep equatorial ocean circulation induced by a forced-dissipated Yanai beam . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 40 , 1118 – 1142 , doi: 10.1175/2010JPO4356.1 . Bourlès , B. , M. d’Orgeville , G. Eldin , Y. Gouriou , R. Chuchla , Y. du Penhoat , and S. Arnault , 2002 : On the evolution of the thermocline and subthermocline eastward currents in the equatorial Atlantic . Geophys. Res. Lett

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Yang Jiao and W. K. Dewar

advection into the ocean interior. The former mechanism is undoubtedly present in the ocean, but some boundary processes have been recently discovered that might participate importantly in ocean mixing. The objective of this study is to examine the energetics of one of those processes, leading to an evaluation of its regional and global importance. a. Background Interest in mixing comes from a desire to understand the stratification of the ocean and the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). The

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A. M. Treguier, C. Lique, J. Deshayes, and J. M. Molines

1. Introduction At midlatitudes, the atmospheric heat transport is performed by transient disturbances, large-scale cyclones, and anticyclones, as discussed, for example, by Kuo (1956) . At the same latitudes, in the ocean, both the time-mean circulation and the transient eddies contribute to the meridional heat transport ( Smith et al. 2000 ). The importance of the time-mean circulation, in the case of the oceanic heat transport, is due to the existence of large-scale currents such as the

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Thomas Meunier, Enric Pallàs Sanz, Miguel Tenreiro, José Ochoa, Angel Ruiz Angulo, and Christian Buckingham

profiles of Fig. 5 , below. The horizontal red lines on the x axis highlight the areas where laterally coherent layering is obvious. For each section, north is on the right-hand side and south is on the left-hand side. A pair of stacked negative and positive anomaly layers marks the lower edge of the LCE’s pycnostad. They extend from the surface near the edges of the eddy down to | z | = 200-m depth, near its center. These features arise because vertical gradients are sharp in the main thermocline

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Nils Brüggemann and Carsten Eden

that there is also a direct route to dissipation for the energy of the large-scale circulation, since they observe a downscale energy flux for dynamics that are out of geostrophic balance (but still have a small aspect ratio). However, the importance of this direct route to dissipation in comparison to the indirect dissipation processes on the large scale is not clear so far. A recent study by Barkan et al. (2015) suggests that the direct route might be even more effective than energy loss due to

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