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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

1. Introduction Prior to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) experiment of the 1990s, there was no systematic collection of global subsurface ocean data. The long-running expendable bathythermograph networks have a strong Northern Hemisphere bias and only follow shipping routes. Except for a few locations where repeated surveys were carried out, the pre-WOCE large-scale ocean circulation could be viewed only as a static or time-invariant entity because of limited data. This has now

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A. J. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and J. L. Roberts

1. Introduction Mesoscale eddies play an important role in the oceanic transport of heat and freshwater, in addition to the main thermohaline and upper-ocean circulations. Sea surface height measurements indicate that eddies are ubiquitous over the global ocean, although they are more active in regions of strong, narrow flow and current confluences, such as western boundary currents and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) ( Rhines 2001 ). The difficulties inherent in gathering and observing

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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

unstable long Rossby waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 33 , 1877 – 1887 . Galanti , E. , E. Tziperman , M. Harrison , A. Rosati , R. Giering , and Z. Sirkes , 2002 : The equatorial thermocline outcropping—A seasonal control on the tropical Pacific ocean–atmosphere instability. J. Climate , 15 , 2721 – 2739 . Ganachaud , A. , and C. Wunsch , 2000 : Improved estimates of global ocean circulation, heat transport and mixing from hydrographic data. Nature , 408 , 453 – 457

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

1. Introduction In this paper we describe the results of a global synthesis obtained by the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) Consortium (see Stammer et al. 2002a ) on a 1° spatial grid (±80°) for the 11-yr period 1992–2002. The synthesis is obtained by forcing the ECCO ocean circulation model to near consistency (within specified error margins) with most of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) observations by using the model’s adjoint to modify the initial

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

not only as a scientist but as an educator, I would like to share my fond memory of the following episode. Carl posed this question during my qualifying orals in graduate school: “Why did Stommel assume spatially uniform upwelling in his theory of abyssal circulation?” In answering, I discussed aspects of thermocline theory, how upwelling cold abyssal water was supposed to oppose downwelling heat to form the thermocline, and how ubiquitous the thermocline is. Carl shook his head in disapproval

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Lee-Lueng Fu

and lows associated with the amphidrome in the middle of the basin are the results of the interference of the various waves generated at the two boundaries of the basin. In fact, these discontinuities are the characteristics of a basin mode. To examine the vertical structure of the variability, the products from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) component of the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) Consortium ( Stammer et al. 2002 ) were analyzed. The T/P and Jason data

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D. E. Harrison and Mark Carson

result from the equatorial thermocline tilt lessening due to the long-term weakening of easterly trade winds (e.g., Harrison 1989 ; Clarke and Lebedev 1997 ). The cause of significant cooling in the north equatorial region of the Pacific around 160°W may deserve further attention. Insofar as the reader’s interest is in the estimation of 51-yr-long basin and World Ocean trends of upper-ocean temperature, these are the core results of our analysis. They show trends consistent in sign from bin to

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Walter Munk and Bruce Bills

are expected to lead to enhanced turbulent mixing. Loder and Garrett (1978) considered a perturbation in the near-surface temperature gradient in a diffusive model. Here, we consider the variation of temperature in the entire water column, using a diffusion–advection model for guidance. Next, we estimate the variability in the poleward flux of heat as a consequence of the temperature perturbation, using a simple model of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). These are two independent

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