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Yoshi N. Sasaki and Chisato Umeda

to 2010 ( Giese and Ray 2011 ). Because the tide is important for reproducing circulation over the continental shelf (e.g., Lin et al. 2020 ), we used the tidal solution simulated by Oregon State University ( Egbert and Erofeeva 2002 ) as tidal forcing along the lateral boundaries. The Changjiang River discharge was based on the monthly climatology estimated by Dai and Trenberth (2002) . Following Kako et al. (2016) , we added this river discharge into the uppermost layer as a point source

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Bunmei Taguchi, Niklas Schneider, Masami Nonaka, and Hideharu Sasaki

online at www.jamstec.go.jp/esc/publication/journal/jes_vol.1/pdf/JES1-3.2-masumoto.pdf .] Miller , A. , D. Cayan , and W. White , 1998 : A westward-intensified decadal change in the North Pacific thermocline and gyre-scale circulation . J. Climate , 11 , 3112 – 3127 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<3112:AWIDCI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<3112:AWIDCI>2.0.CO;2 Mochizuki , T. , and Coauthors , 2010 : Pacific decadal oscillation hindcasts relevant to near-term climate

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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

.1029/JC094iC08p10937 . Miller , A. J. , D. R. Cayan , and W. B. White , 1998 : A westward-intensified decadal change in the North Pacific thermocline and gyre-scale circulation . J. Climate , 11 , 3112 – 3127 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<3112:AWIDCI>2.0.CO;2 . Minobe , S. , 1997 : A 50–70 year climatic oscillation over the North Pacific and North America . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 24 , 683 – 686 , doi: 10.1029/97GL00504 . Minobe , S. , 2000 : Spatio-temporal structure of the

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Hyodae Seo

Coast at about 10°N, hugging the northern shoulder of the Great Whirl ( Swallow and Bruce 1966 ) and feeding into the Southwest Monsoon Current. Earlier studies suggest that the SC becomes unstable, leading to enhanced instabilities and nonlinearity ( Cox 1979 ; Kindle and Thompson 1989 ; McCreary et al. 1993 ; Wirth et al. 2002 ; Jochum and Murtugudde 2005 ). The Great Whirl (GW), a large (a diameter of ~300 km), semipermanent anticyclonic eddy, is the most striking mesoscale circulation

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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

Dyn. , 9 , 287 – 302 , doi: 10.1007/BF00204744 . Miller , A. , D. Cayan , and W. White , 1998 : A westward-intensified decadal change in the North Pacific thermocline and gyre-scale circulation . J. Climate , 11 , 3112 – 3127 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<3112:AWIDCI>2.0.CO;2 . Minobe , S. , 1997 : A 50–70 year climatic oscillation over the North Pacific and North America . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 24 , 683 – 686 , doi: 10.1029/97GL00504 . Miyasaka , T. , H. Nakamura , B

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Dimitry Smirnov, Matthew Newman, Michael A. Alexander, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

region—have a significant influence on the large-scale atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere ( Liu et al. 2006 ; Frankignoul and Sennéchael 2007 ; Qiu et al. 2007 ; Okajima et al. 2014 ). Using a lag of 2–6 months, FSKA11 found that the Oyashio Extension SST frontal shift tends to lead an atmospheric pattern resembling the North Pacific Oscillation, a meridional dipole with centers near the date line at approximately 35° and 60°N. However, the use of monthly averaged data and a

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

1. Introduction It is well established that coupled ocean–atmosphere variability in the tropics, including El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), exerts extensive influence on extratropical climatic conditions via atmospheric teleconnection. In contrast, the influence of extratropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on large-scale extratropical atmospheric circulation has long been believed to be insignificant in the presence of the prevailing dominant remote influence from the tropics

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

-atmospheric baroclinicity by investigating the sensitivity of atmospheric response to the sharpness of the SST gradient along oceanic fronts or to the shift of oceanic fronts. Brayshaw et al. (2008) showed that an intensified midlatitude SST gradient can give rise to a stronger and poleward shift of midlatitude storm tracks [by the measure of 2–6-day bandpass-filtered geopotential height (GPH) variance] in an idealized atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulation. Suppression of the sharp SST gradient in

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Shinichiro Kida, Bo Qiu, Jiayan Yang, and Xiaopei Lin

play a critical role in determining the upper oceanic circulation and sea surface temperature (SST) in the Japan Sea. Recent studies show that the SST variability affects not only the local atmospheric conditions ( Hirose and Fukudome 2006 ) but also the East Asian monsoonal climate ( Yamamoto and Hirose 2011 ; Seo et al. 2014 ). Fig . 1. The topography and straits of the Japan Sea. The black solid arrows show the direction of the annual-mean Throughflow at the straits. The dashed arrows indicate

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, Lixin Wu, and Xiuquan Wan

) further showed that, within the 30-day frequency band, the 3–10-day synoptic storms make the most important contribution to the intraseasonal heat flux variance and their activity affects the low-level atmospheric circulation variability, suggesting a linkage between storm activity and large-scale atmospheric circulation variability. A study of cold air outbreaks (CAOs) in the North Atlantic showed that enhanced CAOs appear to be associated with negative phases of the NAO ( Walsh et al. 2001 ). All

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