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Kwang-Yul Kim, James J. O'Brien, and Albert I. Barcilon

1. Introduction Since the pioneering work of Bjerknes ( Bjerknes, 1969 ), El Niño and La Niña are generally viewed as the oceanic manifestation of the opposite phases of the tropical coupled circulation system called the El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Basic principles of how the coupled ocean–atmosphere system works have been proposed and appear to provide reasonable explanations for these phenomena. The presence of a seemingly biennial oscillation in many observational records

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Shaoping Chu, Scott Elliott, Mathew Maltrud, Jose Hernandez, and David Erickson

, Vol. 31, Pergamon, 245–273 . Li , Y. H. , T. H. Peng , W. S. Broecker , and H. G. Ostlund . 1984 . The average vertical mixing coefficient for the oceanic thermocline. Tellus 36B : 212 – 217 . Longhurst , A. 1998 . Ecological Geography of the Sea . Academic Press, 398 pp . Maier Reimer , E. 1993 . Geochemical cycles in an ocean general circulation model: Preindustrial tracer distributions. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7 : 645 – 677 . Maltrud , M. E. , R. D. Smith

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A. Birol Kara, Charlie N. Barron, Alan J. Wallcraft, and Temel Oguz

nonsteric signals, elevation changes due to changing vertically integrated specific volume anomaly at constant mass and elevation changes due to changing mass per unit area. Steric SSH signals should be correlated with SST unless the change resulted from variations in thermocline or mixed layer depth. One important factor is to determine whether sea level variations are mainly caused by steric variations due to the heat and salt exchanges between the atmosphere and ocean, the internal ocean dynamics

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Peter K. Snyder

influence how vegetation and soils exchange water, energy, and momentum with the atmosphere through complex biophysical processes ( Foley et al. 2003 ). The resulting changes in the surface energy, water, and momentum balance can affect the thermodynamics and circulation of the atmosphere, thereby altering climate patterns. Such changes in the land surface may strongly affect local and regional climate, but perhaps also the climate of distant locations by atmospheric teleconnections. Although

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Shaoping Chu, Scott Elliott, and David Erickson

, however, dynamic three-dimensional simulations of the oceanic distribution are only beginning to appear. We have recently obtained preliminary global results in the context of a biogeochemical general circulation code ( Elliott et al. 2006 ). This early modeling effort is refined here, with validation against kinetic and pattern studies conducted over the last decade or so in the open Pacific. Insertion of CO is a subset of general efforts in which we are now engaged to simulate multiple climate

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Mark R. Jury

capacity Cp ~ 4 × 10 3 J kg −1 K −1 . Although small, it occurs near a threshold temperature (27.5°C; Figure 1b ) that can transform fair-weather cumulus into thunderstorms, as shown below. 2.4. Ocean vertical structure The vertical structure of ocean climate is analyzed in TCI longitudes as a section using SODA data averaged over 1990–2008. The temperature section ( Figure 3a ) shows a rather level thermocline around 180-m depth. Isotherms tend to fan out northward, suggesting more stable

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