Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 16 items for :

  • Thermocline circulation x
  • Journal of Hydrometeorology x
  • All content x
Clear All
Andrea Manrique-Suñén, Annika Nordbo, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Anton Beljaars, and Ivan Mammarella

structure of the thermocline is based on the concept of self-similarity. The shape of the temperature–depth curve is determined by a shape function and bounded on the top and bottom by the mixed layer temperature and the bottom basin temperature. The shape function is approximated by a fourth-degree polynomial of a dimensionless depth, and it depends on a shape factor. The model also parameterizes ice and snow cover and the thermally active upper layer of bottom sediments using a similar approach for

Restricted access
Xiaodong Chen, L. Ruby Leung, Yang Gao, and Ying Liu

influence is associated with the generation of oceanic equatorial Kelvin waves ( McPhaden and Yu 1999 ) that transport the signal of the thermocline in the tropical Pacific to the coast and influence coastal upwelling, as well as ENSO’s impact on the Aleutian low ( Alexander et al. 2002 ) that influences the alongshore winds and coastal upwelling. Based on these mechanisms, larger warm local SST anomalies are generally associated with strong El Niño events. However, the relationship between ENSO and

Restricted access
Murray D. MacKay

interest in the climate system. Recently, a third approach to the problem of representing lakes in atmospheric models has been promoted. In FLake (e.g., Mironov et al. 2010 ) a surface mixed layer is computed (as in the present study), but the thermocline—which is assumed to extend to lake bottom—follows an assumed profile. While computationally very efficient, like the eddy diffusivity approach of Henderson-Sellers (1985) the method is highly empirical, and says little about processes active in the

Full access
Timothy DelSole, Mei Zhao, and Paul Dirmeyer

1. Introduction General circulation models (GCMs) are imperfect, owing to their finite resolution and parameterization of incompletely understood physical processes. Consequently, even with perfect initial conditions, GCM forecasts exhibit systematic errors. These errors degrade the GCM’s simulation of the mean climate and may impede its utility as a forecasting tool. The fact that systematic errors have persisted despite sustained efforts to eliminate them by world-class operational

Full access
William M. Schertzer, Wayne R. Rouse, Peter D. Blanken, and Anne E. Walker

17° to 12°C. Calmer winds after this period, indicated by adjacent buoys, were responsible for a partial recovery of the thermocline layer to a depth of 10–25 m. This event markedly affected the thermal stratification at this station for the 1998 heating season as the thermocline remained at the 15–25-m-depth to the period of maximum heat storage in mid-August. The hourly temperature structure at NW2 is shown for the upper 70 m for the sequence 3–16 August 1998, which straddles the period of

Full access
Bin Deng, Shoudong Liu, Wei Xiao, Wei Wang, Jiming Jin, and Xuhui Lee

energy flux partitioning in response to solar radiation forcing. Our work complements the study by Subin et al. (2012a , b ). In their study, CLM4-LISSS is optimized for application in global climate models, and its performance is evaluated at seasonal to multiyear time scales. The present study seeks to optimize the model parameter values at the diurnal time scale. This scale is relevant to local phenomena such as PBL growth, lake breeze circulations, and mixing of chemical constituents in the

Full access
Mark R. Jury

surface temperatures (SSTs) are warm in the west and along the Antilles island chain ( Fig. 2a ). Convective storms develop there in boreal summer and create a source of diabatic heating that drives the hemispheric circulation. Easterly waves propagate through the Caribbean, giving birth to hurricanes that affect North and Central America. Yet, diffluent trade winds that continually blow there ( Fig. 2b ) induce moisture deficits, particularly when surges of midlatitude air penetrate during boreal

Full access
Anita D. Rapp, Alexander G. Peterson, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Steven M. Quiring, and E. Brendan Roark

) in a changing climate. The economy also depends heavily on tourism and agriculture, the latter of which is especially sensitive to extreme precipitation events that can devastate crops. Precipitation variability in Costa Rica is driven by interactions between the local topography and a combination of the seasonal migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), land/sea breeze effects, monsoonal circulations, strong easterly trade winds and low-level jets, temporales (periods of extended

Full access
Ben-Jei Tsuang

very complicated since its diffusivity is very small during stratified periods and approaches infinity during turnover periods (e.g., Jassby 1975 ; Kondo et al. 1979 ; Tsuang and Dracup 1991 ; Hostetler et al. 1993 ; Oswald and Rouse 2004 ). Nonetheless, in this study it is set at 10 5 J m −2 K −1 s −1/2 , equivalent to a thermocline with a depth of 53 m, for reference. Note that ρ g c g k g values for water bodies are an order of 2 larger than those of vegetated soils; ρ g c g k g

Full access
Peter D. Blanken, Wayne R. Rouse, and William M. Schertzer

) found that both the lake and atmosphere were thermally stable for much of the ice-free period. The lake was thermally stratified (baring occasional strong winds capable of mixing down to the thermocline depth of 15 m) between roughly mid-July and early September 1998, with a predominantly stable atmosphere. Despite the strong damping of convectively driven turbulence in this situation, evaporation was “episodic” with 50% of the total evaporation occurring over only 20% of the days in 1998. Those

Full access