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R. M. Samelson

1. Introduction The middepth cell of the ocean’s zonally integrated meridional overturning circulation, consisting loosely of the southward flow of North Atlantic deep water from northern subpolar latitudes to the Southern Hemisphere and the compensating northward flow of warm thermocline waters from the Southern Hemisphere to the northern subpolar gyre, is a central element of the large-scale ocean circulation, which likely plays a major role in the earth’s climate system ( Schmitz 1996a , b

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Paola Cessi and Christopher L. Wolfe

vertical scale in (40) . Thus, without wind stress, the MOC scales like the square of the thermocline depth on the western boundary. According to (40) the MOC scales as Ψ ∼ g ′ [ x e κ υ /( βN   2 )] 1/2 , a scaling that we have verified with the solution (43) . In nonlinear models of the oceanic circulation, N   2 is part of the solution and it is tempting to identify h G as the scale height for the basic stratification (i.e., N   2 ∼ g ′/ h G ). Using this hypothesis in (40) , the scale

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Baylor Fox-Kemper and Raffaele Ferrari

three-layer model for the wind-driven circulation in a subtropical-subpolar basin. Part III: Potential vorticity analysis. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 18 , 739 – 752 . Huang , R. X. , 1990 : Matching a ventilated thermocline model with inertial western boundary currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 20 , 1599 – 1607 . Huang , R. X. , and G. R. Flierl , 1987 : Two-layer models for the thermocline and current structure in subtropical/subpolar gyres. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 17 , 872 – 884 . Johnson

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Carl Wunsch and Patrick Heimbach

1. Introduction The North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (NA-MOC) has been the focus of intense interest, in part because of widely publicized claims that it controls much of the climate system and/or is in imminent danger of “collapse.” A number of studies (e.g., Hurrell et al. 2006 ) have discussed predicting the NA-MOC under the presumption that it is a dominant component of ongoing climate change. Wunsch and Heimbach (2006) , using the great majority of global data and a

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Yafang Zhong and Zhengyu Liu

. Levitus , S. , and T. P. Boyer , 1994 : Temperature . Vol. 4, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, 117 pp . Liu , Z. , 1999a : Planetary wave modes in thermocline circulation: Non-Doppler-shift mode, advective mode and Green mode. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 125 , 1315 – 1339 . Liu , Z. , 1999b : Forced planetary wave response in a thermocline gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 29 , 1036 – 1055 . Liu , Z. , L. Wu , R. Gallimore , and R. Jacob , 2002 : Search for

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J. A. Whitehead

. Sidhu , 1999 : The Stommel model of shallow coastal basins. Proc. Roy. Soc. London , A455 , 3997 – 4011 . Huang , R. X. , 1999 : Mixing and energetics of the oceanic thermocline circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 29 , 727 – 746 . Ierley , G. R. , and V. A. Sheremet , 1995 : Multiple solutions and advection-dominated flows in the wind-driven circulation. Part 1: Slip. J. Mar. Res. , 53 , 703 – 733 . Jiang , S. , F-F. Jin , and M. Ghil , 1995 : Multiple equilibria

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K. Shafer Smith and John Marshall

stability properties of the global hydrography by Smith (2007) also reveals indirect evidence of deep eddy mixing in the ACC. In that paper, it is shown that mean PV gradients exhibit multiple zero crossings in the vertical. There are both vigorous, near-surface instabilities and slower, thermocline-level baroclinic instabilities associated with interior PV gradients. The steering level of these latter modes is found to lie at a level where PV gradients change sign. In the ACC this occurs at a depth

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