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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Joel C. Wesson, David W. Wang, William J. Teague, and Z. R. Hallock

downwelling in the upper 125 m with a maximum of about 50 m day −1 at 75 m, and upwelling below 150 m with a maximum of about 50 m day −1 at 200 m. These vertical velocity estimates off the northern reef edge are significantly larger than estimates in the main thermocline in the open ocean, indicating the major influence of steep topography on regional scale circulation. Strong downwelling on the top of the thermocline, and upwelling below the thermocline generate a stronger thermocline and high

Open access
Magdalena Andres, Ruth C. Musgrave, Daniel L. Rudnick, Kristin L. Zeiden, Thomas Peacock, and Jae-Hun Park

temperature dependence of c , τ often serves as an excellent proxy for thermocline and pycnocline displacement in many regions. However, pathlength changes can also measurably influence τ , and in conjunction with bottom pressure measurements can be used to infer mass-loading changes in the overlying waters. Spectral analysis of the hourly τ measurements from the FLEAT PIES array shows that most of the variance is at tidal periods ( Fig. 4a ). Much of this is coherent with bottom pressure

Open access
Andrew L. Stewart, James C. McWilliams, and Aviv Solodoch

early theories of gyre circulation, in which the net wind stress curl was balanced in a western boundary current by either frictional drag at the sea floor ( Stommel 1948 ), or by lateral stresses associated with an “eddy” viscosity Munk (1950) . These early theories were posed in an ocean basin with flat bathymetry, or for fluid above the main thermocline that did not interact dynamically with the sea floor ( Pedlosky 2013 ). It has subsequently been shown that bathymetry, and particularly the

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Jody M. Klymak, Dhruv Balwada, Alberto Naveira Garabato, and Ryan Abernathey

can be lost via wave–wave interactions to generate a halo of turbulence up to a few hundred meters above the sea floor. Recent work has indicated that parameterizing the mixing and drag due to tidal flow (e.g., Melet et al. 2013 ; de Lavergne et al. 2017 ) and mean flows ( Melet et al. 2014 ) over abyssal hills can alter the large-scale circulation and stratification. For the case where u o k / f > 1, but Nh / u 0 is not small, it is believed that partial blocking can enhance the drag and

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Madeleine M. Hamann, Matthew H. Alford, Andrew J. Lucas, Amy F. Waterhouse, and Gunnar Voet

to the shelf region. Where previously studied “slope canyons” often contain, connect to, and foster mixing along deep isopycnals relevant for the overturning circulation of the deep ocean ( Kunze et al. 2012 ), “shelf canyons” like the LJCS are impactful for regional dynamics and interactions with the inner shelf and nearshore regions. Turnover rates, circulation patterns, and sediment transport in nearshore waters are affected by nearby canyon topography and the surface wave refraction

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Shuwen Tan, Larry J. Pratt, Dongliang Yuan, Xiang Li, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep S. Budiman, and Ahmad Bayhaqi

concentrated in the western reaches of the Indonesian Archipelago, especially in the Makassar Strait (~11.6 Sv from Gordon et al. 2010 ). Waters of South Pacific origin, however, enter the Indonesian Seas via the eastern route ( Fig. 1a ), i.e., through the Maluku Sea into the Lifamatola Passage (~2000 m) or through the Halmahera Sea (blocked below 550 m) into the internal Banda Sea ( Li et al. 2020 ). Lower thermocline Antarctic Intermediate Waters and deeper Circumpolar Deep Waters are observed to enter

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Gunnar Voet, Matthew H. Alford, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, and Jonathan D. Nash

1. Introduction Oceanic internal lee waves and their associated breaking and energy dissipation are thought to play a considerable role in the energy and momentum budgets of the mean and mesoscale ocean circulation. Numerical model studies show that turbulent mixing generated by breaking lee waves, in addition to internal tides and near-inertial waves, are an important driver of the global overturning circulation and may account for up to one-third of the internal wave-driven water mass

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