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Angélique Melet, Lionel Gourdeau, William S. Kessler, Jacques Verron, and Jean-Marc Molines

Sea and its surroundings is relatively unknown, and the only estimates of transport through the straits come from the pioneering Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (WEPOCS) cruises of 1985–86 ( Lindstrom et al. 1987 , 1990 ), from an additional cruise in 1988 ( Butt and Lindstrom 1994 ), and from mooring buoys ( Murray et al. 1995 ). This study focuses on the finescale pathways of the South Pacific LLWBCs, diagnosing the thermocline circulation in the Solomon Sea and its role in the

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Alexander Sen Gupta and Matthew H. England

and convection processes. It also allows for the inclusion of a variety of different tracer types, which can provide additional diagnostics (e.g., ideal age) and may be directly compared with observations [e.g., chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)]. In the Southern Ocean the formation and subsequent northward spreading of intermediate, mode, and thermocline water masses play a vital role in closing the global meridional overturning circulation. This thermohaline circulation (THC) is often visualized as

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Cara C. Henning, David Archer, and Inez Fung

1. Introduction Fluid flow in the upper thermocline occurs largely along isopycnal surfaces, while the rate of cross-isopycnal mixing tends to be small. However, understanding the structure of the thermocline (e.g., Samelson and Vallis 1997 ), the overturning circulation ( Scott and Marotzke 2002 ), the efficiency of potential carbon sequestration experiments ( Mignone et al. 2004 ), and the degree of high-latitude control on the atmospheric p CO 2 concentration ( Archer et al. 2000 ) all

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Alexey Fedorov, Marcelo Barreiro, Giulio Boccaletti, Ronald Pacanowski, and S. George Philander

northern Atlantic and western Europe. Recently, Fedorov et al. (2004) demonstrated, by means of an idealized general circulation model configured for the size of the Pacific Ocean basin, that a similar freshening can also affect the shallow, wind-driven circulation of the ventilated thermocline and its heat transport from regions of gain (mainly in the upwelling zones of low latitudes) to regions of loss in higher latitudes. A freshening that decreases the surface density gradient between low and

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Michael A. Spall and David Nieves

approximately 17 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ) and the mean meridional heat transport is approximately 1.25 PW, which represents 90% of the oceanic heat transport at this latitude ( McCarthy et al. 2015 ). The oceanic circulation is composed of several flow components. Near the surface (within the thin Ekman layer) there is an Ekman transport driven by local wind stress that is generally equatorward at midlatitudes and poleward at 26.5°N. Below the Ekman layer in the main thermocline, flow is geostrophic and

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Bo Young Yim, Yign Noh, Bo Qiu, Sung Hyup You, and Jong Hwan Yoon

North Pacific by averaging the values of H e estimated from 102 Argo floats. It is natural, however, to expect both spatial and temporal variation in H e . On the other hand, recent progress in the eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM) enables us to estimate D-EHT directly ( Jayne and Marotzke 2002 ; Meijers et al. 2007 ; Volkov et al. 2008 ). Using an OGCM with a horizontal resolution of ¼°, Jayne and Marotzke (2002) reproduced the distribution of D-EHT, and compared it with

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Hiroyuki Tsujino, Hiroyasu Hasumi, and Nobuo Suginohara

hemisphere with a single deep-water source. Changes in density stratification and intensity of circulation were discussed: stratification is improved in the deep layer and thermohaline circulation is intensified when vertical diffusivity is allowed to increase below the thermocline. However, its mechanism is not clarified. Since the Pacific has no deep-water source within it but has multiple deep-water sources outside of it, the situation for the Pacific may be different from a single-basin model with a

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Stephen M. Cox and Sidney Leibovich

1330 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUI~23Langmuir Circulations in a Surface Layer Bounded by a Strong Thermocline STEPHEN M. COX* AND SIDNEY LEIBOVICHSibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York(Manuscript received 13 December 1991, in final form 2 July 1992)ABSTRACT Langmuir circulations reside in, and are responsible in part for the existence and maintenance of, the

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Patrick Haertel and Alexey Fedorov

with excessive spurious diffusion, as can be the case for Eulerian models ( Griffies et al. 2000 ). We also note that major large-scale components of ocean circulation appear to be adequately resolved, including Ekman transport in the surface layer, equatorward Sverdrup flow in the interior of the ventilated thermocline, and regions of light and dense water formation at the surface. Is it possible, to the extent that boundary currents compensate for imbalances generated by these large

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Paola Cessi, Christopher L. Wolfe, and Bonnie C. Ludka

/homogenized thermocline ( Stommel and Webster 1962 ; Young and Ierley 1986 ; Salmon 1990 ; Samelson and Vallis 1997 ). However, this framework is appropriate only in the subtropical regions where there is downward Ekman pumping. In the subpolar region, where the maximum of the Eulerian overturning circulation is found, the depth of the thermocline cannot be determined by ventilation: either diffusion (e.g., in the mixed layer) or remote processes must control the dynamics. All of the above theories neglect the

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