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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

. From west (wet) to east (dry), the towers are the Mary’s Peak mountain-top tower in the Coast Range for incoming air (OMP), Douglas fir in the Coast Range (OWA), Willamette valley crops (OSI), eastern Cascades slopes (OMT), and the northern basin and range in the High Desert (ONG). The towers are equipped with profile systems that measure high-precision, well-calibrated CO and CO 2 mixing ratio time series. Meteorological measurements include wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation (total

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Dev Niyogi, Ming Lei, Chandra Kishtawal, Paul Schmid, and Marshall Shepherd

, in particular, can affect thunderstorms ( Bornstein and Lin 2000 ; Schroeder et al. 2016 ). As early as the 1920s, Horton (1921) noted that some cities in the northeastern United States might be more likely to spawn thunderstorms. The Metropolitan Meteorological Experiment (METROMEX; Huff and Changnon 1972 ) helped demonstrate the mechanisms of increased rainfall downwind of urban landscapes. Since then, their single city studies have been verified by several studies ( Shepherd et al. 2002

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

observational studies suggests that urbanization can bring about modifications to rainfall patterns over and downwind of cities ( Burian and Shepherd 2005 ; Changnon et al. 1977 ; Shepherd 2005 , 2006 ). In the early 1970s, the Metropolitan Meteorological Experiment (METROMEX) showed that urbanization can lead to increased precipitation during the summer season ( Changnon et al. 1977 , 1981 ; Huff and Vogel 1978 ), with about 5%–25% increases in observed precipitation over and within 50–75 km downwind

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

the turn of the twentieth century, the 60 years that followed saw a drastic reduction of cropland. The rain-fed agricultural system in place was no match for the irrigating farmers in the west or the midwestern farms that are largely insulated from drought by their deep water-holding soils. By 1980, western irrigation and improvements in transportation had largely displaced the rain-fed systems of the east, and as a result southeastern agriculture declined precipitously. In Alabama, planted acres

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