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Sue Ellen Haupt, Steven Hanna, Mark Askelson, Marshall Shepherd, Mariana A. Fragomeni, Neil Debbage, and Bradford Johnson

—applications in urban meteorology, energy, air pollution management, and surface transportation. Part III continues along this line by discussing meteorological applications in agriculture and food security and then treating those topics that have emerged more recently, including space weather, use of meteorology in managing wildland fires, and applications of artificial intelligence ( Haupt et al. 2019b ). The examples in this chapter and its partners describe steps toward communicating and collaborating to

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

specific problems and to serve particular sectors. These problems range from getting precipitation in the right places at the right time, to meeting the needs of very specific sectors (including energy, security, surface transportation, wildland fire management, agriculture, and more), through the development of new areas of focus of meteorology (such as space weather and fire weather) and employing new tools (such as artificial intelligence) to approach our problems. Walter Orr Roberts, the first

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

the National Buoy Data Center 24 ) and satellite observations of sea state and surface winds (e.g., inferred from scatterometer data) provide situational awareness and input to forecasts. Port operations require good tidal information, water depth, wind velocity, wave heights and direction, and other information to navigate large vessels precisely and avert collisions with structures or other ships. Nowhere is the synergy between transportation and meteorology stronger than in aviation. The

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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

IMO later became the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1950 under the auspices of the United Nations (UN; WMO 2018 ). Strong international cooperation has always been a hallmark of meteorology and was essential for effective weather forecasting in all eras. The International Civil Aviation Organization was established in 1944 in support of safe and efficient international aviation. d. Forecasting applications In this era, agriculture, transportation, and public safety were perhaps the

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I. Gultepe, A. J. Heymsfield, P. R. Field, and D. Axisa

weather, climate, and society are included, as well as recommendations for future work. 2. Description of the ice-phase precipitation and microphysics Solid precipitation, including both single and complex snow crystals, is very important in precipitation process. Based on the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Glossary of Meteorology ( American Meteorological Society 2016a ), snow is defined as precipitation composed of white and/or translucent ice crystals, chiefly in complex branched hexagonal

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

basic radiation and surface meteorological measurements be established away from the airport to help assess the regional representativeness of the AMF1 deployment location. As a result, a small solar-powered site was established near Banizoumbou, Niger (about 60 km away from the main AMF1 site) in a radiatively natural environment. The RADAGAST deployment was extremely successful, and there is no question that this deployment is one of the most significant achievements of the ARM and AMF1 program

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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

in the field of mesoscale surface-based weather and climate over the time span of the American Meteorological Society—100 years. Knowledge of some of these weather and climate phenomena spans back far longer (such as sea-breeze circulations), while some are more recent developments in the field (such as responses to wind farms). Commonalities and differences between the evolution of these example phenomena provide a useful overview of the drivers of research and the way in which rapidly

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Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

broadband, for a range of climatically different meteorological conditions to constrain detailed, line-by-line radiative calculations under clear, cloudy, and overcast conditions for global application Measurements of surface and overlying meteorological variables, including cloud type and distribution, wind, and temperature Measurements of clouds, radiative properties, and atmospheric properties over a wide range of scales Measurements of the microphysical properties of clouds Measurements of

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

applications. Knowledge of meteorology enabled each of these applications, and the study required to progress the applications enriches our understanding of the meteorological processes involved. In the second chapter, we dealt with using meteorology to find solutions to problems generated by a growing population—urbanization, air pollution, energy, and surface transportation. We saw not only that meteorology provides useful information for these applications, but also that each of these issues itself

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

oceanography (biology, chemistry, geology, biogeochemistry, geochemistry, microbiology, and physical oceanography) to utilize the ship resource. While oceanography is multidisciplinary, a size limit demands that this chapter not be. As a chapter in a largely meteorological book, our focus is on physical phenomena in the ocean that are linked to processes in the atmosphere on the scales where ocean–atmosphere interaction is most apparent, say, time scales > O (1) day and horizontal scales > O (10) km

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