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Curtis L. Walker, Brenda Boyce, Christopher P. Albrecht, and Amanda Siems-Anderson

fog can result in multivehicle crashes as drivers become unaware of their position, location, and speed relative to adjacent vehicles. Wet, icy, slushy, and snow-covered pavement reduce friction and result in loss of vehicle control. AVs must be able to accommodate both implications presented by weather conditions. The American Meteorological Society (AMS) Intelligent Transportation Systems and Surface Transportation Committee (ITS/STC) and its Mobile Observations Subcommittee serve under the AMS

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William P. Mahoney III and James M. O'Sullivan

on the weather community's technical understanding and eventual adoption of these unique datasets and their level of participation in connected vehicle initiatives within the transportation community. All sectors of the weather enterprise (e.g., public, private, and academic) must become involved to help define, shape, and support the effort to bring these data to bear on the weather and transportation communities. For this reason, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Board on Enterprise

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Sheldon Drobot, Amanda R. S. Anderson, Crystal Burghardt, and Paul Pisano

is a relatively new venture, for new types of road and atmospheric weather data. DATA COLLECTION. We conducted an Internet survey of U.S. residents during October and November 2010, associated with the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Annual Partnership Topic (APT) focused on mobile observations ( Mahoney and O'Sullivan 2013 ). Prior to sending out the survey, we pretested all questions with several verbal protocol analyses to ensure that questions were being interpreted as planned

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Barbara Mayes Boustead, Martha D. Shulski, and Steven D. Hilberg

child readers ( Hill 2007 ). While Wilder’s account of the winter was a work of historical fiction, the book contained many verifiable facts, including those regarding the meteorological events of the Hard Winter. Both meteorological records and nonmeteorological accounts indicate that the winter was particularly long, snowy, and cold. Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867–1957) was an American author, writing the Little House book series between 1932 and 1943. Born in Pepin, Wisconsin, to Charles and

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Edmund Bromley Jr.

Weather strongly affects air carrier and general aviation operations and the air traffic control system. Accidents, flight delays, airport operations, and fuel economy are only a few of the more significant factors in air transportation that are affected directly by weather phenomena.

Data on the effect of weather on air transportation are presented. The challenges to the aeronautical meteorologist to meet the demands for service are categorized as: the challenge to “do more with less,” to “prove the value of aviation weather service,” and to provide more “tailored” service. An assessment of today's services and capabilities is given, and the progress in meeting these challenges is outlined briefly.

Challenges of tomorrow to the aeronautical meteorologist are anticipated as not changing from today's challenges; however, a shift in emphasis from the type of service provided today is suggested. The need to highlight techniques of value analyses and a role for the American Meteorological Society in meeting this need are suggested.

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S. SethuRaman, P. Michael, W. A. Tuthill, and J. McNeil

An observation system used to study the marine boundary layer over the Bay of Bengal at Digha Beach, West Bengal, India, as part of the International Monsoon Experiments (MONEX 79) is described in this paper. It was a portable system that was designed to facilitate ease in transportation, to be quick to assemble, independent and self-sufficient in power supply, and to operate in remote sites for long periods of time. The experiments consisted of measurements of atmospheric turbulence and fluxes of momentum, heat, and water vapor from a 10 m high coastal meteorological tower. Mean meteorological parameters were measured with an automated electronic weather station. Wind speed and direction profiles in the planetary boundary layer were obtained with pilot balloon soundings.

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David Changnon

Job opportunities for undergraduate meteorology students are decreasing. An innovative course in applied climatology has been designed and tested to help prepare such students for the career options developing in the private sector. Students are trained to use their meteorological knowledge and analytical skills to work interactively with weather-sensitive users in utilities, agribusinesses, water-resource agencies, recreation firms, and transportation companies. The students develop and test climate relationship-decision models in a real-world environment for these organizations. The models they develop bridge existing information “gaps” between climatologists and weather-sensitive managers who 1) do not understand climate information, and/or 2) do not know how to apply it to their environmental or economic decisions. As a result, students receive applied research experience and important “education-to-career” opportunities; that is, students can apply what is learned through direct and often beneficial interactions with decision makers. These efforts address problems similar to those they likely will encounter after employment. Other long-term objectives of this course are to develop a more effective information flow between climatologists and weather-sensitive users and to assist climatologists by identifying the types of needs for climate information.

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Innovative Weather

A New Strategy for Student, University, and Community Relationships

Paul J. Roebber, Michael Westendorf, and G. Richard Meadows

The Innovative Weather program at the University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee (UWM) is a weather service provider, staffed 24 hours per day and seven days per week by paid upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, a fulltime academic staff member as director of operations, one other full-time-equivalent academic staff member, and one faculty member to oversee the program and manage research activities. Innovative Weather coordinates the needs of a select group of community clients exposed to weather-related risks with the research and operational expertise that exists at the university. Through the program, students broaden their academic studies into the realm of operational and applied research meteorology. Students provide key input to client decisions worth thousands of dollars and learn how to communicate credibly this high-value information.

The program, initiated with fiscal backing from the UWM College of Letters and Sciences, has in two years developed a paying client list that includes major representatives in energy, metropolitan sewage treatment, education, transportation, and the media. By partnering with community clients, new research opportunities and resources become available that leverage traditional funding sources and ensure ongoing student involvement with demonstrated positive impact on student education and students' subsequent career choices. The direct use of the operational tools and products by clients provides important feedback that benefits the research. In addition to the many benefits of the program, the challenges to developing and maintaining such an entity within the fiscal and bureaucratic constraints of a public university are discussed.

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Walter F. Dabberdt, Jeremy Hales, Steven Zubrick, Andrew Crook, Witold Krajewski, J. Christopher Doran, Cynthia Mueller, Clark King, Ronald N. Keener, Robert Bornstein, David Rodenhuis, Paul Kocin, Michael A. Rossetti, Fred Sharrocks, and Ellis M. Stanley Sr.

The 10th Prospectus Development Team (PDT-10) of the U.S. Weather Research Program was charged with identifying research needs and opportunities related to the short-term prediction of weather and air quality in urban forecast zones. Weather has special and significant impacts on large numbers of the U.S. population who live in major urban areas. It is recognized that urban users have different weather information needs than do their rural counterparts. Further, large urban areas can impact local weather and hydrologic processes in various ways. The recommendations of the team emphasize that human life and well-being in urban areas can be protected and enjoyed to a significantly greater degree. In particular, PDT-10 supports the need for 1) improved access to real-time weather information, 2) improved tailoring of weather data to the specific needs of individual user groups, and 3) more user-specific forecasts of weather and air quality. Specific recommendations fall within nine thematic areas: 1) development of a user-oriented weather database; 2) focused research on the impacts of visibility and icing on transportation; 3) improved understanding and forecasting of winter storms; 4) improved understanding and forecasting of convective storms; 5) improved forecasting of intense/severe lightning; 6) further research into the impacts of large urban areas on the location and intensity of urban convection; 7) focused research on the application of mesoscale forecasting in support of emergency response and air quality; 8) quantification and reduction of uncertainty in hydrological, meteorological, and air quality modeling; and 9) the need for improved observing systems. An overarching recommendation of PDT-10 is that research into understanding and predicting weather impacts in urban areas should receive increased emphasis by the atmospheric science community at large, and that urban weather should be a focal point of the U.S. Weather Research Program.

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The Cyclonic Disturbances of the Sub-Tropical Eastern North Atlantic

Adapted from Parts II and III of “Variations of Pressure and Wind; A Treatise on the Weather of the Trade Wind Region of the Eastern North Atlantic,” by Walter Piersig, Aus dem Archiv d. deutschen Seewarte, Bd. 54, No. 6, 1936.

The “Hoffmeyer Charts”, a joint publication of the Deutsche Seewarte and the Netherlands Meteorological Institute, covering the years 1881–1911, offer an extraordinary opportunity to study the types and behavior of pressure disturbances which form in the trade-wind belt of the eastern North Atlantic. Such disturbances occur relatively infrequently, so that they can only be studied when data from such a long period of years is available.

A systematic review of the “Hoffmeyer Charts” revealed that there are four principal types of disturbances, none of which is as intense in character as middle latitude cyclones, but which nevertheless have definite types of weather phenomena associated with them which may be of considerable significance to ocean and air transportation. These disturbances were classified as follows: Type 1 is a low pressure area centered in middle or higher latitudes of the North Atlantic Ocean, whose influence, however, extends as far south as 25° N. Lat. or more: Type 2 is a disturbance centered at about 30°N, 30°W. Both type 1 and 2 derive from middle latitude disturbances, and usually begin as a secondary. Type 3 is a low-pressure center near the Canary Islands, which may originate on the West African coast south of 20° N and move westward toward the Canaries, or may originate near the Canaries and travel eastward along the same route, or, as is most frequently the case, may originate near or just north of the Canaries, expand or fill up on the spot, or perhaps attach itself to a low moving eastward in higher latitudes. Type 4 is a low on the West African coast between 5° and 20° N which moves westward. These usually move along the southern edge of the trade-wind belt.

“The tracks and monthly frequency of disturbances of these various types is discussed in considerable detail, as well as the duration and tendency to repetition. A detailed synoptic analysis of a type 4 disturbance is given.”

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