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YuJia You and Xiaojing Jia

), geopotential heights, specific humidity, and wind from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Global Reanalysis 1 ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) (these data are available at a horizontal resolution of 2.5° × 2.5°); 2) the observed monthly mean precipitation of 160 Chinese meteorological stations, obtained from the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration; 3) the NOAA Extended Reconstructed SST, version 3b (ERSST.v3b; Smith

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Jie Song and Chongyin Li

intensity of the tropical WNP convective activities is weaker (stronger) (e.g., Lu 2001 ). This leads to a stronger (weaker) moisture transportation into subtropical East Asia by the southwesterly flow along the western rim of the WNPSH and consequently strengthened (weakened) precipitation over this region. Kosaka and Nakamura (2010) also indicated that, under the summer monsoon background flow in East Asia, anomalous reverse vertical motion tends to be dynamically forced around the tropical WNP and

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Robert M. Schwartz and Thomas W. Schmidlin

1. Introduction Severe winter storms are significant natural hazards. They cause disruptions to transportation, wind damage to buildings, loss of retail sales, closure of schools and businesses, loss of electricity, and hazards to human health causing morbidity and mortality (e.g., Rooney 1967 ; Babin 1975 ; Changnon and Changnon 1978 ; Graff and Strub 1975 ; Helburn 1982 ; McKay 1981 ). Significant impacts from severe winter weather in North America can occur in northern latitudes where

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Xiaoxin Yang, Tandong Yao, Wulin Yang, Baiqing Xu, You He, and Dongmei Qu

calculated as where R is the ratio of the composition of the heavier to lighter isotopes in water ( 18 O/ 16 O for δ 18 O, or D/H for δ D), and the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water standard is the reference ( Kerstel and Meijer 2002 ). Studies of δ 18 O in precipitation within the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO) show significant links of δ 18 O in precipitation with surface air

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Yu Du and Guixing Chen

1. Introduction Low-level jets (LLJs), defined as the wind maximum in the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere, occur globally as an important atmospheric phenomenon ( Stensrud 1996 ; Rife et al. 2010 ). Since LLJs are closely related to precipitation, wind energy, and pollution transportation, they have been widely studied (e.g., Bonner 1968 ; Chen and Yu 1988 ; Monaghan et al. 2010 ; Liu et al. 2014 ; Rasmussen and Houze 2016 ). In fact, LLJs can be classified into two types: 1

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John M. Hanesiak and Xiaolan L. Wang

1. Introduction Adverse weather in the Canadian Arctic can have extreme effects on its inhabitants, including species mortality, travel and transportation, hunting, economic losses, and recreation. The frequency and intensity of adverse-weather events with present and future climate variability is also of concern [see Serreze et al. (2000) for a good overview of current observational high-latitude evidence for recent climate change]. Adverse impacts can be associated with various types of

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Donald R. Johnson and Akio Arakawa

younger scientists. His descriptions of the field of mean motion, the zonally averaged state, and poleward angular momentumflux must be regarded as classic contributions to meteorology. The Mintz-Arakawa GCM was also a remarkablecontribution to atmospheric science, both with respect to the development of early general circulation modelsand its range of applications to varied scientific challenges.1. Introduction When the history of atmospheric science is written,Professor Yale Mintz will

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Dan-Qing Huang, Jian Zhu, Yao-Cun Zhang, Jun Wang, and Xue-Yuan Kuang

flow invaded from the Siberia, which may provide the precursory signals for the drought ( Sun and Yang 2012 ). Additionally, the location of the EASJ is also important. For example, displacement of the EASJ influences the vertical flow over southern China via the secondary circulation around the entrance region of the EASJ ( Wang et al. 2011 ). The northward shift of the EASJ may lead to abundant spring rainfall over southern China, which is associated with the enhanced water vapor transportation

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Junpeng Yuan, Yong Gao, Dian Feng, and Yali Yang

southwestern Indian Ocean is primarily attributed to the vertical motion transportation term, while the apparent moisture sink has a negative contribution ( Fig. 11a ). However, in the east part of the tropical Indian Ocean, the tendencies of special humidity anomaly are negative, primarily because of negative contributions of the vertical motion transportation term in the BOB and southeastern Indian Ocean ( Fig. 11a ). Thus, the humidity anomaly tendency at 700 hPa is closely related to the vertical

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Hengchun Ye, Han-Ru Cho, and Philip E. Gustafson

data collected at first-order weather stations during 1881–1985 ( Barry et al. 1993 ). The mean monthly snow depth data was compiled and its quality checked by the National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado ( Barry et al. 1993 ). The snow depth data is based on daily measurements that were taken from three snow-measuring rods placed in a meteorological enclosure; the daily mean snow depth value is the average of the three readings. There are 284 weather stations throughout the former

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