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Ansar Khan, Samiran Khorat, Rupali Khatun, Quang-Van Doan, U. S. Nair, and Dev Niyogi

quality, spatiotemporal trends and to control and regulate pollutants from different sources to meet the air quality standards in cities across India. As part of this monitoring, continuous monitoring systems that provide data on a near-real-time basis are installed in a number of cities. Data for 91 cities were extracted from the CPCB portal for 1) AQI bulletin ( https://cpcb.nic.in/AQI_Bulletin.php ) and 2) air pollutants and meteorological data ( https

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Katalin Kovacs, K. Jon Ranson, Guoqing Sun, and Vlacheslav I. Kharuk

into a modeling framework. In their 2003 paper, Chapin et al. modeled change in human–fire interaction in the Alaskan boreal forest. Chapin et al. ( Chapin et al. 2003 ) point out that studies are needed on the way in which fire policy, settlement policy, and cultural and socioeconomic variables affect future fire regimes. What is meant by influence of human activities must be discussed especially in light of potentially incomplete input data layers. Areas around transportation lines and

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Mary K. Butwin, Sibylle von Löwis, Melissa A. Pfeffer, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Johann Thorsson, and Throstur Thorsteinsson

ash deposits were initially between 1 and 15 cm ( Fig. 1a ) ( Gudmundsson et al. 2012 ; Arnalds et al. 2013 ). Fig . 1. (a) Isopachs of tephra thickness (cm) from Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption over the dust source map of Iceland. The dust source map shows areas from low erosion (green) to extreme erosion (red). (Erosion data: Agricultural University of Iceland and the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland. Basemap data: National Land Survey of Iceland. Cartography: Icelandic Meteorological Office

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Jay Golden, W. C. Chuang, and W. L. Stefanov

was introduced by Kerschgens and Kraus ( Kerschgens and Kraus 1990 ) and refined by Taha ( Taha 1999 ) where the contribution of the canopy layer fluxes to an area at the bottom of the boundary layer is the weighted sum of the contribution of fluxes from individual surfaces. The need to increase the resolution of LULC information, both spatially and temporally, is vital to realize functionally reliable meteorological modeling ( Grossman-Clarke et al. 2005 ; Stefanov and Brazel 2007 ). Burley

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

. From west (wet) to east (dry), the towers are the Mary’s Peak mountain-top tower in the Coast Range for incoming air (OMP), Douglas fir in the Coast Range (OWA), Willamette valley crops (OSI), eastern Cascades slopes (OMT), and the northern basin and range in the High Desert (ONG). The towers are equipped with profile systems that measure high-precision, well-calibrated CO and CO 2 mixing ratio time series. Meteorological measurements include wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation (total

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Mark R. Jury

Birmingham provided useful insights during preparation of the manuscript. Appendix Figure A1 is a photo of participants in the Wollo University air chemistry and meteorology data analysis workshop on 16 December 2016. Figure A1. Participants in the Wollo University air chemistry and meteorology data analysis workshop, 16 Dec 2016. References Abate , Z. , 2015 : Impact of vehicle emission on air pollution in Addis Ababa. Stakeholder Workshop on Air Quality and Transportation Challenges in Ethiopia and

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Hal F. Needham and Barry D. Keim

center of the hurricane eye to the peak wind speed, usually observed in the eyewall. Distances are usually provided in nautical miles, although some sources list distances in kilometers. The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) HURDAT reanalysis project provides four datasets that include hurricane size information. These data provide a comprehensive reanalysis of hurricane characteristics, including the radius of maximum winds. AOML provides data for the years 1851

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J. Marshall Shepherd and Steven J. Burian

United States, the current urban growth rate, based on 1990 and 2000 census figures, is approximately 12.5%, with 80% currently living in urban areas. The U.S. population is not only growing but is tending to concentrate more in urban areas in coastal zones ( Culliton et al., 1990 ). As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development for policy makers. Urban expansion and its associated urban heat

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J. Marshall Shepherd

observational and climatological studies have theorized that the UHI can have a significant influence on mesoscale circulations and resulting convection. Early investigations ( Changnon 1968 ; Landsberg 1970 ; Huff and Changnon 1972 ) found evidence of warm seasonal rainfall increases of 9% to 17% over and downwind of major cities. The Metropolitan Meteorological Experiment (METROMEX) was an extensive study that took place in the 1970s in the United States ( Changnon et al. 1977 ; Huff 1986 ) to further

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Jinyang Du and Qiang Liu

1. Introduction The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) spanning the Yangtze River in Hubei Province, China, is the largest hydroelectric project in the world. The megaproject was built to control Yangtze River floods, generate hydropower, and improve the transportation capacity at the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Controlling the catastrophic floods downstream is the most important function of TGD since every few decades major flooding of the Yangtze occurs. However, as one of the heaviest manmade

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