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Katelyn A. Barber, Wiebke Deierling, Gretchen Mullendore, Cathy Kessinger, Robert Sharman, and Domingo Muñoz-Esparza

convection. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States set policies that include a lateral avoidance of 20 mi (32.2 km) from severe convection (U.S. Department of Transportation; FAA 2017 ). While consistency in operations between the midlatitudes and tropics may reduce the number of guidelines needed to avoid convective hazards, it could also be inefficient for flight routing and planning when tropical convection is significantly different than midlatitude convection. It is commonly

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Stanley G. Benjamin, Eric P. James, Ming Hu, Curtis R. Alexander, Therese T. Ladwig, John M. Brown, Stephen S. Weygandt, David D. Turner, Patrick Minnis, William L. Smith Jr., and Andrew K. Heidinger

more constrained cloud building using background subgrid-scale cloud fraction gave improved results overall, especially in winter, including a more neutral bias. 5. Conclusions Short-range forecasts of stratiform cloud are extremely important for a wide range of applications, including aviation, ground transportation, and solar energy. The SCH analysis technique described herein represents an effective way to initialize stratiform cloud and hydrometeors in a rapidly updating mesoscale or storm

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ANDREW H. PALMER

value in ofher rlimatological sectiopR, and with a desire thst it8 may inspire similar surveys of other r In California the Weather Bureau acta asa meteorological a8%katolo@al center of information and clearing house, and supervisee the ghenpg and publication of a small fraction of the data available. unicipalities industries, public sen ice corporations, businas houses, resorts and institutions maintain clima- tological statiom and secure data which are of peat practical value in agriculture

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Philippe Lucas-Picher, Daniel Caya, Sébastien Biner, and René Laprise

analysis. The residency time is treated and archived as any other simulated meteorological variable, therefore allowing computation of its climate diagnostics. Similarly, Gheusi and Stein (2002) studied the flow dynamic in an atmospheric model with three Eulerian passive tracers initialized with the spatial coordinates of each grid cell. In their study, the tracers within the airflow experience the transport processes: advection, subgrid turbulence, and convective transport. This method allows the

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Rui Zhong, Shibin Xu, Fei Huang, and Xin Wu

by the Shanghai Typhoon Institute, China Meteorological Administration (CMA-STI). CMA-STI TC best track dataset records the time, strength, latitude, longitude, center minimum pressure, and 2-min center maximum wind speed for the TCs formed in the WNP (contain SCS) every 6 h. Especially, the TDs that do not intensify into TSs during their lifetime are also recorded in this dataset. This dataset has good accuracy in the position and intensity of TC in the SCS. But there are some subcenter TC data

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every clime has important weather problema to meet and overcome, for trains and tracks have no protection against thevarioue elemente of nature. First of all. temperature extreme8 have a racking effect upon all ateel and iron work. Rails and car wheels, exposed to such aevere meteorological conditions, often break and delays sometimea result. To overcome these troubles. steel. made by the open-hearth proceaa is being used with good results. Of the various forma of p.kpitation anow is regarded aa the

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. The Philippine Weather Bureau, Manila.The Meteorological Observatory of Belen College, Habana. The General Superintendent of the United States LifesavingThe Government Meteorological Office of Jamaica.The Meteorological Service of the Azores. The Director-General of Mexican Telegraphs.Contributions for the MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW concern- Contributions for the MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW from for-ing agriculture, transportation, water uses and resources, fores- eign correspondents should be addressed to

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, Manila.The Meteorological Observatory of Belen College, Habana. The General Superintendent of the United Statea Life-Saving The Government Meteorological Office of Jamaica.The Meteorological Service of the bores. The Director-General of Mexican Telegraphs.Contributions for the MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW concern- Contributions for the MONTHLY WEATHER RBVIEW from for- ing agriculture, transportation, water uses and resources, fores- eign correspondentR should be addressed to the Chief, U. S try. and

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, Manila.The Meteorological Observatory of Belen College, Habana. The General Superintendent of the United Statea Life-Saving The Government Meteorological Office of Jamaica.The Meteorological Service of the bores. The Director-General of Mexican Telegraphs.Contributions for the MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW concern- Contributions for the MONTHLY WEATHER RBVIEW from for- ing agriculture, transportation, water uses and resources, fores- eign correspondentR should be addressed to the Chief, U. S try. and

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, Manila. The Meteorological Observatory of Belen College, Habana. The General Superintendent of the United States Lifesaving The Government Meteorological Office of Jamaica.The Meteorological Service of the Azores. The Director-General of Mexican Telegraphs.Contributions for the MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW concern- Contributions for the MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW from for-ing agriculture, transportation, water uses and resources, fores- eign correspondents should be addressed to the Chief, U. d.try, and

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