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Richard A. Craig, Chester W. Newton, R. Robert Rapp, and Robert O. Reid

January 1974) of the publication of Monthly I. IZeather Review, upon its relinquishmentby NOAA. Over the years, MWR h~ contained articlesin subject areas represented in Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (JAS), Journal of Applied Meteorology(JAM), and Journal of Physical Oceanography (JPO). New directions in Society publications, aimed towarddefining areas of emphasis for the four journals andbetter serving the varied interests of AMS members,were discussed in the August 1973 issue of Bulletin

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Y. Sadhuram, T. V. Ramana Murthy, Y. V. B. Sarma, and V. S. N. Murty

of B are large for cold air outbreak conditions. Chou and Yeh (1986) observed B to vary between 0.61 and 0.78 over midlatitude coastal water during cold air outbreak events. During Air-Mass Transportation Experiment (14–28 February 1974), the value of B was about 0.8 over the Yellow Sea. Hsu also reported Bowen ratios that were substantially higher during a cold-air outbreak that resulted in enhanced sensible heat flux over latent heat flux under these conditions. The linear regression

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S. A. Hsu

of the Coastal Zone, Le Hague Amer. Meteor. Soc. 381-387.Freeman, J. C., 1985: Marine transportation and weather-sensitive operations. Handbook of Applied Meteorology, D. D. Houghton, Ed., Wiley and Sons, 978-997.Garratt, J. R., 1977: Review of drag coefficients over oceans and continents. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, 915-928.Graf, W. H., N. Merzi and C. Perrinjaquet, 1984: Aerodynamic drag measured at a nearshore platform on Lake of Geneva. Arch. Met. Geophys. Bioklirn., A33, 151

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Simon R. Thompson

mesoscale eddy heatflux (not estimated in their method) suggested as amost likely mechanism for achieving this.c 1993 American Meteorological Society2494 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME232. Description of the model and methods The FRAM is a community project designed to studythe Southern Ocean. The model is based on the codedeveloped by

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Toshinori Ogasawara and Takashi Yasuda

1. Introduction Wind-driven currents play important roles in the transport of suspended solids and sediment, planktons, and dissolved oxygen. In particular, the currents driven by strong winds due to unusual meteorological disturbances, such as typhoons or cold fronts, not only can cause coastal disasters, but also can have a great influence on coastal environments. This is because the currents in the coastal sea and inner bays can become not only the primary cause for storm surge and large

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F. I. Gonazález

are assisted and 30 livesare saved, but about ten lives are also tragically lostin spite of these efforts (Department of Transportation,1982). Wave energy incident on the Washington-Oregoncoast is generated primarily by extratropical cycloneswhich originate in the western Pacific near Japan, thenmove east toward the Aleutian chain and into the Gulfof Alaska. Winds in the south-to-southwest sectors ofthe storms produce waves that arrive at the coast inthe form of a 10 to 16 s swell from the west

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Will P. M. de Ruijter

mathematicalformulation of the model which is, in essence, themulti-dimensional extension of the classical modelby Kraus and Turner (1967). In Section 3 we thenshow that for the non-entraining application, the process can be described by a first-order quasilinear hyperbolic partial differential equation that can be analytically solved by classical methods. Inspiration for1983 American Meteorological Society488 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY

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Hendrik L. Tolman

gratitude tothe Dutch Ministry of Public Works and Transportation (Rijkswaterstaat), in particular J. de Ronde, R.van Dijk, A. J. van der Kerk, and H. Ligtvoet, for supplying the bottom schematization of the North Sea,the tidal boundary conditions and observed wind andwave data. For supplying the wind fields, I want toexpress my gratitude to the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), in particular H. W.Riepma and E. Bouws. Permission to use an operational version of the numerical model

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Taku Wagawa, Shin-Ichi Ito, Yugo Shimizu, Shigeho Kakehi, and Daisuke Ambe

1. Introduction The deepest mixed layer in the Pacific is known to be formed in the northern part of the Kuroshio/Oyashio (the western boundary currents of the subtropical/subarctic North Pacific) mixed water region (152°–160°E and 40°–42°N) in the winter season ( Suga et al. 2004 ; Tomita et al. 2011 ). The mixed layer has been a subject of recent oceanographic and meteorological studies because of its major role in heat exchange due to air–sea interaction (e.g., Stommel 1979 ; Yuan and

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Weiqing Zhang and William Perrie

moistening. These processes create favorable conditions for storm intensification because the resulting increase in the air–sea temperature difference tends to destabilize the surface layer and enhance the convergence and upward transportation of mass and moisture from the surface. By comparison, momentum fluxes related to wave drag are important over regions of the storm where young, newly generated waves are prevalent and represent the transfer of atmospheric energy from the winds into the ocean

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