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Alan W. Black and Thomas L. Mote

aircraft upset (unintentionally exceeding parameters experienced during normal operations). This study will build on existing research to determine the spatial and temporal characteristics of winter-weather-related transportation fatalities. Fatalities from these accidents are considered to be indirect and are traditionally omitted from analysis by the meteorological community. It is hoped that this research will reveal patterns of vulnerability, which can then be used to develop more effective

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Lindsay Matthews, Jean Andrey, and Ian Picketts

1. Introduction Human-induced environmental change is a major challenge facing all levels of government. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing is contributing to a variety of changes in the biophysical system, resulting in myriad impacts on communities globally ( IPCC 2014 ). To inform adaptation strategies and measures, there is a need to better understand the impacts of environmental change on affected systems. The transportation sector, while vital to the global economy, has been

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Mario Cools, Elke Moons, and Geert Wets

slippery roads on the other hand could increase the frequency of accidents. This example illustrates the long recognized proposition that road accidents and traffic intensities are the consequence of an interaction between behavioral, environmental, and technological factors. A change in any of these factors could prevent an accident from occurring ( Edwards 1996 ; Levine et al. 1995 ). The rise of advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) provides transportation agencies the opportunity to implement

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Alan W. Black, Gabriele Villarini, and Thomas L. Mote

-related crash risk in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States by Qiu and Nixon (2008) found that rainfall led to a 31%–111% increase in overall automobile crash rate, with injury crash rates increasing by anywhere from 28% to 70%. A number of factors, both meteorological and nonmeteorological, contribute to the wide range of risk estimates found. Rainfall intensity ( Hambly et al. 2013 ), daily rainfall accumulation ( Eisenberg 2004 ), and time between rainfall events ( Eisenberg 2004 ) have all

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Dana M. Tobin, Matthew R. Kumjian, and Alan W. Black

associated with winter weather by an order of magnitude ( Black and Mote 2015a ). There are different approaches to evaluate precipitation’s effect on vehicle-related crashes and fatalities. Several papers utilize both meteorological and vehicle-related crash databases to identify precipitation type at the time of the incident (e.g., Andrey et al. 2003 , and references therein; Eisenberg and Warner 2005 ; Andrey 2010 ; Andrey et al. 2013 ; references in Theofilatos and Yannis 2014 ; Black and Mote

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Stefan von Gruenigen, Saskia Willemse, and Thomas Frei

://www.meteoschweiz.admin.ch/web/de/meteoschweiz/medien/medienmitteilungen/wert_meteo.Related.0002.DownloadFile.tmp/vonumet.pdf .] Freebairn, J. W. , and Zillmann J. W. , 2002 : Economic benefits of meteorological services . Meteor. Appl. , 9 , 33 – 44 , doi:10.1017/S1350482702001044 . Frei, T. , 2010 : Economic and social benefits of meteorology and climatology in Switzerland . Meteor. Appl. , 17 , 39 – 44 . Frei, T. , von Gruenigen S. , and Willemse S. , 2014 : Economic benefit of meteorology in the Swiss road transportation sector . Meteor. Appl. , doi:10.1002/met

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António Lobo, Sara Ferreira, Isabel Iglesias, and António Couto

and inconsistent, which makes it harder to analyze and represent their behavior. Theofilatos and Yannis (2014) noted that there are very few studies specifically devoted to the effects of meteorological conditions on crashes involving vulnerable road users, namely power two-wheelers, cyclists, and pedestrians. This is in contrast to the numerous studies that address the weather effects on the frequency and/or severity of other types of crashes or that simply do not discriminate those effects

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Ethan D. Coffel and Radley M. Horton
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Francis T. Hane
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Ashley R. Coles and Katherine K. Hirschboeck

collected from rain gauges around the city ( NRCC 2019 ). A municipal program known as “Operation Splash” attempts to deter motorists from driving into flooded roadways using permanent signs, seasonal A-frame signs, and road barriers (see Fig. 1 ). The locations of flood-prone areas are frequently mentioned in outreach programs and through the local television and print media ( Tucson Department of Transportation 2015 ) and are shown here in Fig. 2 . An Arizona state law (ARS 28-910), popularly known

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