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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

similar to that used by Yan et al. (2014) but uses multiyear global satellite data instead of long-term ground-based measurements made at one location. We examine the systematic changes in CRF with increasing aerosol loading over the entire tropics, where deep convective clouds are more plentiful than at higher latitudes and where different types of aerosols under varying meteorological conditions are present. These systematic changes are referred to as aerosol-mediated changes in CRF (AMCRF

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

focused on IN sources, ice nucleation mechanisms, and parameterizations ( Jackson et al. 2012 ; M. Fan 2013 ; de Boer et al. 2013 ; Paukert and Hoose 2014 ; Savre and Ekman 2015 ). IN recycling was found to be an important IN source that plays an important role in determining liquid and ice partitioning and lifetime of AMPC ( Fan et al. 2009 ; Solomon et al. 2015 ). c. Deep convective clouds DCCs vary in all kinds of forms from tropics to subtropics, from land to ocean, and from islands to

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Wojciech W. Grabowski

humidity. The top two panels of Fig. 12 show evolutions of the temperature at 5 and 10 km. The temperature at 5 km varies little over the 7-day period. This is in agreement with the fact that the temperature in the tropics varies little because of the action of gravity waves that in the convecting atmosphere efficiently homogenize horizontal temperature gradients. This idea is behind the weak temperature gradient approximation (e.g., Sobel et al. 2001 ), as already mentioned in the introduction. The

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Tianmeng Chen, Jianping Guo, Zhanqing Li, Chuanfeng Zhao, Huan Liu, Maureen Cribb, Fu Wang, and Jing He

clouds over the Gulf and the southern United States ( Yuan et al. 2008 ), deep convective clouds (DCC) over the Atlantic Ocean ( Koren et al. 2005 ) using satellite data and the global tropics ( Niu and Li 2012 ; Peng et al. 2016 ) using A-Train satellite data, and for all types of clouds using 10 years of long-term ground observations made at the Southern Great Plains site ( Li et al. 2011 ), among others. For all such studies, one of the most challenging tasks is to untangle the effects of

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Jianjun Liu, Zhanqing Li, and Maureen Cribb

the global tropics . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 12 , 8491 – 8498 , doi: 10.5194/acp-12-8491-2012 . Painemal , D. , and P. Zuidema , 2013 : The first aerosol indirect effect quantified through airborne remote sensing during VOCALS-Rex . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 13 , 917 – 931 , doi: 10.5194/acp-13-917-2013 . Pandithurai , G. , T. Takamura , J. Yamaguchi , K. Miyagi , T. Takano , Y. Ishizaka , S. Dipu , and A. Shimizu , 2009 : Aerosol effect on cloud droplet size as

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Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Yangang Liu, and Renyi Zhang

– 1342 , doi: 10.1126/science.1092779 . Bigg , E. K. , 1953 : The formation of atmospheric ice crystals by the freezing of droplets . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 79 , 510 – 519 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49707934207 . Bond , D. W. , S. Steiger , R. Y. Zhang , X. X. Tie , and R. E. Orville , 2002 : The importance of NO X production by lightning in the tropics . Atmos. Environ. , 36 , 1509 – 1519 , doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00553-2 . Charlson , R. J. , and M. J. Pilat , 1969

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