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Yongxiang Hu, David Winker, Mark Vaughan, Bing Lin, Ali Omar, Charles Trepte, David Flittner, Ping Yang, Shaima L. Nasiri, Bryan Baum, Robert Holz, Wenbo Sun, Zhaoyan Liu, Zhien Wang, Stuart Young, Knut Stamnes, Jianping Huang, and Ralph Kuehn

predominantly low-level water clouds ( Fig. 15 ). The uppermost layer clouds at tropics and high latitudes are predominantly ice clouds ( Fig. 15 , left). Nearly all the clouds over Antarctica, Greenland, and the western Pacific warm pool detected by CALIOP are ice clouds ( Fig. 15 , right). Ice clouds with horizontally oriented particles tend to occur over the southern oceans and the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere ( Fig. 16 ). Both Figs. 15 and 16 show cloud statistics when the

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David M. Winker, Mark A. Vaughan, Ali Omar, Yongxiang Hu, Kathleen A. Powell, Zhaoyan Liu, William H. Hunt, and Stuart A. Young

altitudes is assumed to be negligible for the period of the CALIPSO mission. An investigation indicates there may be a calibration bias of a few percent because of the background stratospheric aerosol, with a larger bias in the tropics than at higher latitudes ( Thomason et al. 2007 ). Daytime background levels prevent this calibration technique from being applied to sunlit portions of the orbit, so daytime calibrations are interpolated from adjacent nighttime calibrations. The relative gain of the two

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