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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

sources and sinks. Alexander and Rosenlof (2003) found that parameters related to the sources and sinks varied from the tropics to the extratropics. In the AM3 application of Alexander and Dunkerton (1999) , the momentum source is represented by a broad spectrum of wave speeds (half-width of 40 m s −1 ) with a resolution of 2 m s −1 and a single horizontal wavelength of 300 km. The amplitude of the momentum source is 0.005 Pa in the northern middle and high latitudes, 0.004 Pa in the tropics, and

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John Austin, Larry W. Horowitz, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, R. John Wilson, and Hiram Levy II

annually averaged total column ozone simulated for the period 1860 to 2005 as a function of latitude and time. In the tropics there is no clear trend. In middle latitudes there is a tendency for the ozone column to increase during the simulation in both hemispheres until about 1980. Thereafter the ozone columns start to decrease, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Although it is only a seasonal phenomenon, the Antarctic ozone hole is particularly noticeable as a decrease in the annual-mean column

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

, there are some notable changes, as evidenced by the root-mean-square biases as categorized by latitude bands. In general, CM3 has a somewhat smaller rms error in the high latitudes, whereas CM2.1 has a smaller rms error in the tropics. In the remainder of this subsection, we discuss possible physical mechanisms impacting these biases and connect regional bias patterns to these physical mechanisms. Fig . 2. Maps of SST from CM2.1 and CM3, minus the observational analysis of Reynolds et al. (2002

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