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Abby Stevens, Rebecca Willett, Antonios Mamalakis, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Alejandro Tejedor, James T. Randerson, Padhraic Smyth, and Stephen Wright

from the spatial and temporal dependencies (see Fig. 2a for Σ ^ obs ). Visually, there is no striking difference in the dependence structure of SSTs between different months ( Fig. 2a , left panel). The highest correlations (both positive and negative) are found in the tropics, with strong SST couplings along the eastern and central tropical Pacific basin (high positive correlation) and between the eastern and western tropical Pacific basin (high negative correlation), features that are a

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Clément Guilloteau, Antonios Mamalakis, Lawrence Vulis, Phong V. V. Le, Tryphon T. Georgiou, and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

these variables is distributed across space and across temporal frequencies. The variability of the GPH is much lower in the tropics than at middle and high latitudes, whereas for the SST the variability is found more evenly distributed across the globe. Comparing the power spectral density of the two variables, we can see that SST shows relatively more variability than GPH at temporal scales between 3 months and 10 years while GPH shows more variability for periods shorter than 3 months (i.e., S2S

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Nobuyuki Utsumi, F. Joseph Turk, Ziad S. Haddad, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and Hyungjun Kim

°–60°S and N) with the freezing level conditioned on 0–1 km from the surface, which represent the cold season cases, (ii) the middle-to-high latitudes with the freezing level conditioned on 3–4 km, which represent the warm season cases, and (iii) the tropics (15°S–15°N) with the freezing level conditioned on a typical range in the tropics (4–5 km). The consistency of the passive MW-based profiles with the reference data largely varies among different conditions. For example, the average profile of

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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

. 2017 ). In the tropics, however, LH is typically the primary component for a wide range of tropical circulations beginning with the large-scale Hadley circulation where latent heat release within “hot towers” is the principal driver ( Riehl and Malkus 1958 ; Fierro et al. 2009 , 2012 ). LH can also lead to important feedbacks within monsoon circulations such as the East Asian summer monsoon ( Jin et al. 2013 ), the West African monsoon ( Hagos and Zhang 2010 ), and the South Asian monsoon

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Chandra Rupa Rajulapati, Simon Michael Papalexiou, Martyn P. Clark, Saman Razavi, Guoqiang Tang, and John W. Pomeroy

datasets. Figure 5 shows the observed and the calculated return levels using the PII distribution and the W distribution. The spatial patterns of CPC and MSWEP closely match except in Greenland. The reanalysis-based CFSR dataset has higher values of maxima in the tropics and the satellite-based PERSN-CDR dataset has consistently lower values across the globe compared to the other products. While the spatial patterns of all datasets match well in North America, CFSR has slightly higher values compared

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Phu Nguyen, Mohammed Ombadi, Vesta Afzali Gorooh, Eric J. Shearer, Mojtaba Sadeghi, Soroosh Sorooshian, Kuolin Hsu, David Bolvin, and Martin F. Ralph

. Due to its location in the tropics, rainfall is consistent throughout the year with slight peak during the months of August, September, and October; consequently, vegetation land cover mostly consists of evergreen broadleaf forest. Figure 2a shows the spatially averaged monthly precipitation for the year 2017. PDIR-Now (red line) closely follows the monthly GPCP precipitation (black line), capturing the slight peak in (August–October) period. PERSIANN-CCS (blue line), on the other hand

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

. Nature , 521 , 436 – 444 , https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14539 . 10.1038/nature14539 Liu , C. , and E. J. Zipser , 2009 : “Warm rain” in the tropics: Seasonal and regional distributions based on 9 yr of TRMM data . J. Climate , 22 , 767 – 779 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2641.1 . 10.1175/2008JCLI2641.1 Liu , G. , and J. A. Curry , 1992 : Retrieval of precipitation from satellite microwave measurement using both emission and scattering . J. Geophys. Res. , 97 , 9959 – 9974

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