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Long S. Chiu and Roongroj Chokngamwong

increasing trend of about 4% over the 0°–10°N ocean, with rates of 0.234 and 0.238 mm day −1 (10 yr) −1 for V4 and V6, respectively. The linear trends for the whole domain (50°N–50°S), the tropics (25°N–25°S), and the region of most noted increase (0°–10°N) are summarized in Table 2 . Both the mean and the linear trend for these regions are similar between V4 and V6; the differences in the means are less than 0.3%. The magnitudes and the percentage change (over the 20-yr period) increase from the

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Rémy Roca, Philippe Chambon, Isabelle Jobard, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Marielle Gosset, and Jean Claude Bergès

extensive, perhaps exhaustive, review on the physical processes associated to the diurnal variability of rainfall over the whole tropics. Elucidating the relative role of the various diurnal mechanisms for the whole West African monsoon region can now be attempted using the strength (coverage and sampling) of the validated new generation of combined satellite level 2 products. The present methodology could easily be applied again if a better estimation of the error budget becomes available. The

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B. J. Sohn, Hyo-Jin Han, and Eun-Kyoung Seo

-based TMI rain products is also provided in Fig. 2f . This is because HRPP algorithms are primarily tuned against the TMI retrievals for constructing 3-hourly data. Relative to the AWS rain distributions, the TMI product shows significant underestimates over the peninsula. The GPROF algorithm used for TMI products takes the Bayesian approach supported by six different cloud simulations ( Olson et al. 2006 ). However, considering that those six simulations focus mainly on tropics and ocean cases, the

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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

tropics and midlatitudes with the tendency of HOAPS to show slightly higher mean wind speeds. At high latitudes the NOCS dataset exhibits a systematic low bias relative to HOAPS and the other datasets. In particular over the Southern Ocean the NOCS wind speed appears to be systematically underestimated. This is also reflected in the total error estimate given in the NOCS dataset, which is around 3.5–4 m s −1 for the region south of 40°S, because of the sparse data sampling. 3) Global mean time series

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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

land-classification corrections to AMSU are generally smaller in the tropics, very small at latitudes of 50°–70°, and greater at midlatitudes 20°–50°N, because that is where much desert is located. Because of reliability concerns, the surface-classification corrections for water were defined as unity because of the lack of reliable rain gauge data there; the “water” gauges reside mostly on small islands with uncertain local effects. Because water surfaces generally promote less virga than does hot

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Song Yang, Fuzhong Weng, Banghua Yan, Ninghai Sun, and Mitch Goldberg

calibration and will not affect the rain intensity considerably when precipitation is already strong in the tropics. Some statistics on variations of the precipitation mean absolute bias due to the SDR calibration are summarized in Table 6 . 6. Discussion and conclusions A new NOAA/NESDS SSM/I SDR intersensor calibration scheme is developed for climate studies. This calibration scheme is built on the SCO technique, which collects observations at the same time and location from two SSM/I sensors that have

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Ali Behrangi, Koulin Hsu, Bisher Imam, and Soroosh Sorooshian

, X. Gao , and H. V. Gupta , 1999 : A cloud-patch technique for identification and removal of no-rain clouds from satellite infrared imagery. J. Appl. Meteor. , 38 , 1170 – 1181 . Yang , G-Y. , and J. Slingo , 2001 : The diurnal cycle in the tropics. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 129 , 784 – 801 . APPENDIX A Cloud-Patch Feature Description For a cloud patch P with gridbox brightness temperature T ( x , y ), albedo A ( x , y ), and total gridbox count N , the cloud-patch features

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Meike Kühnlein, Boris Thies, Thomas Nauß, and Jörg Bendix

subtropics and tropics ( Bendix 1997 , 2000 ), it shows deficiencies in nontropical regions ( Pompei et al. 1995 ; Levizzani et al. 1990 ; Negri and Adler 1993 ). For this reason, Reudenbach (2003) developed the Enhanced Convective Stratiform Technique (ECST) for convective systems in the midlatitudes. By additionally considering the water vapor channel they achieved a more reliable differentiation between convective cores and nonraining cirrus clouds. Despite the variety of existing satellite

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