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Wilfrid Schroeder, Jeffrey T. Morisette, Ivan Csiszar, Louis Giglio, Douglas Morton, and Christopher O. Justice

1. Introduction Biomass burning plays an important role in various aspects of the global climate system, largely because of the effects of trace gas emissions from biomass combustion and the resulting changes to the radiation and energy budget ( Crutzen and Andreae 1990 ; Lenoble 1991 ; Artaxo et al. 1998 ; Eck et al. 1998 ; Ross and Hobbs 1998 ). Of the total number of fire events observed every year, most occur in the Tropics ( Hao and Liu 1994 ; Dwyer et al. 2000 ), due to the

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

base fields have little influence on the regional model fields in the inner domain, despite the base fields being part of the regional solution. All the above PI procedures were developed to improve initial condition and, consequently, to increase the short-term rainfall forecasting mainly over the Tropics. We have now redesigned PI for climate simulations in order to improve regional downscaling by means of continuous precipitation assimilation. In particular, we have now included the new PI into

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Lydia P. Olander, Mercedes M. Bustamante, Gregory P. Asner, Everaldo Telles, Zayra Prado, and Plínio B. Camargo

biogeochemical cycling to affect the future productivity of these forests or long-term carbon (C) storage ( Laurance et al. 1999 ). Highly weathered and nutrient-poor soils, oxisols and ultisols, underlay approximately 75% of forested regions in the humid Tropics ( Sanchez 1976 ). Available rock derived nutrients like phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are often in short supply and tightly cycled by the biota ( Vitousek and Sanford 1986 ). Pasture and agricultural productivity in

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Jeffrey T. Morisette, Louis Giglio, Ivan Csiszar, Alberto Setzer, Wilfrid Schroeder, Douglas Morton, and Christopher O. Justice

the tropics: A remote sensing analysis at the landscape scale. J. Biogeogr. 27 : 765 – 776 . França , H. and A. Setzer . 2001 . AVHRR analysis of a Savanna site through a fire season in Brazil. Int. J. Remote Sens. 22 : 2449 – 2461 . Giglio , L. , J. Descloitres , C. O. Justice , and Y. Kaufman . 2003 . An enhanced contextual fire detection algorithm for MODIS. Remote Sens. Environ. 87 : 273 – 282 . Goldammer , J. G. 1990 . Fire the Tropical Biota . Springer

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Gregory P. Asner, David E. Knapp, Amanda N. Cooper, Mercedes M. C. Bustamante, and Lydia P. Olander

, the data are sent back to a central processing unit to reconstruct the final results in image format. 2.4. Sensitivity to atmospheric correction A critical aspect of any large-scale, optical remote sensing study of vegetation lies in the assessment of potential sources of error. Atmospheric correction of optical satellite data has been a major issue in many studies of the humid Tropics, owing to the often high water vapor and aerosol (from biomass burning) concentrations found over these regions

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Ted R. Feldpausch, Susan J. Riha, Erick C. M. Fernandes, and Elisa V. Wandelli

biomass accumulates more slowly in areas burned 5 times or more ( Zarin et al. 2005 , manuscript submitted to Ecol. Lett. ). Compared to recovery following slash-and-burn, the postpasture forests of this study recovered biomass more slowly than Piper- dominated SFs in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea ( Hartemink 2001 ), more rapidly than rates reported for Bolivian lowland SFs ( Steininger 2000 ), at similar rates for a review of forest recovery following slash-and-burn in the Tropics ( Brown

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Andrew J. Elmore, Gregory P. Asner, and R. Flint Hughes

observations. Global Change Biol. 9 : 1145 – 1157 . Hughes , R. F. , P. M. Vitousek , and T. Tunison . 1991 . Alien grass invasion and fire in the seasonal submontane zone of Hawai’i. Ecology 72 : 743 – 746 . NPS 1990 . Fire Management Plan: Hawaii Volcanoes National Park . U.S. Department of the Interior, 54 pp . Parsons , J. J. 1970 . Spread of African pasture grasses in the American tropics. J. Range Manage. 25 : 12 – 17 . Roberts , D. A. , M. Gardner , R. Church , S

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Michael Keller, Ruth Varner, Jadson D. Dias, Hudson Silva, Patrick Crill, Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira Jr., and Gregory P. Asner

budgets and remote sensing as tools for evaluation of logging effects. Working Forests in the American Tropics: Conservation Through Sustainable Management? D. J. Zarin et al., Eds., Columbia University Press, 41–63 . Kiese , R. , B. Hewett , A. Graham , and K. Butterbach-Bahl . 2003 . Seasonal variability of N 2 O emissions and CH 4 uptake by tropical rainforest soils of Queensland, Australia. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 17 . 1043, doi:10.1029/2002GB002014 . Levaggi , D. , E. L

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Eraldo A. T. Matricardi, David L. Skole, Mark A. Cochrane, Jiaguo Qi, and Walter Chomentowski

. Working Forests in the Tropics: Conservation through Sustainable Management? D. J. Zarin et al., Eds., Columbia University Press, 301–324 pp . Curran , L. M. , I. Caniago , D. Paoli , D. Astianti , M. Kusneti , C. Leighton , E. Nirarita , and H. Haeruman . 1999 . Impact of El Niño and logging on canopy tree recuitment in Borneo. Science 286 : 2184 – 2188 . ERDAS 1997 . Erdas Field Guide . 4th ed. Erdas Inc., 656 pp . Gascon , C. Coauthors 1998 . Logging in the

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Douglas C. Morton, Ruth S. DeFries, Yosio E. Shimabukuro, Liana O. Anderson, Fernando Del Bon Espírito-Santo, Matthew Hansen, and Mark Carroll

1. Introduction Deforestation in the humid Tropics is a conspicuous change in land use with myriad impacts on global carbon (e.g., Houghton et al. 2000 ) and climate (e.g., Salati and Nobre 1991 ; Werth and Avissar 2002 ). Deforestation rates in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America have remained constant or increased over the past two decades ( DeFries et al. 2002 ), elevating the need for frequent and accurate assessment of forest loss. In Brazil, the continued expansion of

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