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Mozhgan Amiramjadi, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Mohammad Mirzaei, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

− v d ¯ | 2 , in the tropical region, where v a ¯ and v d ¯ denote the vertically averaged ageostrophic and divergent wind, respectively. The pattern of divergent circulation in the tropical region exhibits strong divergent velocity, especially in June–August (JJA) over Indian Ocean and Africa ( Trenberth et al. 2000 ). A large component of circulation in the tropics is zonal rather than meridional and referred to as Walker circulation ( Bjerknes 1969 ; Krishnamurti 1971 ). Therefore, to

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Junhong Wei, Gergely Bölöni, and Ulrich Achatz

the elastic terms and the GW entropy fluxes vanish then. Hence, the difference between the approaches exists only outside the tropics, and it is negligible for midfrequency and high-frequency GWs as well. 3. Description of the numerical models In this section, the numerical code used for the validation cases is described, used either in a wave-resolving high-resolution mode with a subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence parameterization to provide reference data or in a low-resolution mode with a WKB

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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

transition from westerly to easterly winds with important consequences for the propagation and drag of planetary and synoptic waves ( Scaife et al. 2002 ). They also contribute to the forcing of the Brewer–Dobson circulation and thus to the transport of trace gases like ozone and water vapor ( Alexander and Rosenlof 1996 ). Convectively generated GWs are important for generating the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the tropics ( Labitzke 2005 ; Marshall and Scaife 2009 ), which has a strong influence

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

with the climatological mean (see Fig. 12 , right) shows a much stronger convergence in July and August 2014 in the upper stratosphere than in the climatological mean. The convergence of is as expected for dissipating and breaking planetary waves originating from the troposphere. It drives an equator-to-pole residual circulation pattern that produces upwelling in the tropics and downwelling in high latitudes (e.g., Dunkerton et al. 1981 ; Shaw and Perlwitz 2014 ). This downwelling warms the

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