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Robert A. Houze Jr., Lynn A. McMurdie, Walter A. Petersen, Mathew R. Schwaller, William Baccus, Jessica D. Lundquist, Clifford F. Mass, Bart Nijssen, Steven A. Rutledge, David R. Hudak, Simone Tanelli, Gerald G. Mace, Michael R. Poellot, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Angela K. Rowe, Jennifer C. DeHart, Luke E. Madaus, Hannah C. Barnes, and V. Chandrasekar

; Houze et al. 2015 ). However, these methods were designed for the warm tropical latitudes. Microphysical processes producing precipitation are highly sensitive to the vertical profile of temperature, and an important characteristic of the tropics is that the horizontal temperature variation is slight. Therefore, relatively simple assumptions could be made about the horizontal structures of the cloud systems producing precipitation. The performance of satellite algorithms in baroclinic storm systems

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Andrew Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Norman B. Wood, Guosheng Liu, Simone Tanelli, Ousmane O. Sy, Michael Poellot, and Chuntao Liu

°C was 700 hPa, whereas in the tropics the pressure is closer to 510 hPa. Our calculations indicate that this pressure difference will result in a 17% higher precipitation rate for OLYMPEX. Most pressure adjustments to the raindrop terminal velocities generally follow the Foote and Du Toit (1969) relationship ( P /1000) 0.5 , as is the case for the terminal velocity relationship based on Szyrmer and Zawadzki (1999) that we use in our calculations of rainfall rate from liquid water content for

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

precipitation processes and their modulation by synoptic environment and complex terrain. We further note that this study has implications regarding the convective–stratiform partitioning used to characterize rainfall variability in deep convective regimes. The heavy rain and large quantities of small-drops regimes described above in sections 3b and 3d fall in the same N w – D o space that has been associated with convective radar echoes in the tropics ( Bringi et al. 2009 ; Thompson et al. 2015

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