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  • Australasian climate over the last 2,000 years: The PAGES AUS2K synthesis x
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Steven J. Phipps, Helen V. McGregor, Joëlle Gergis, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Raphael Neukom, Samantha Stevenson, Duncan Ackerley, Josephine R. Brown, Matt J. Fischer, and Tas D. van Ommen

reflect the temporal resolution of the proxies from which they were derived. c. Coral δ 18 O The proxy dataset used as the basis for the second case study is the coral δ 18 O record from Palmyra Island (6°N, 162°W) in the central Pacific Ocean ( Cobb et al. 2003 ). This record is chosen for a number of reasons. First, as Palmyra Island lies in the tropics and only just outside the Niño-3.4 region (5°S–5°N, 170°–120°W), the local climate is dominated by ENSO. El Niño events bring warm wet conditions

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Howard J. Diamond, Andrew M. Lorrey, and James A. Renwick

behavior. While the distribution of warm waters (≥26.5°C) is critical for dictating thermocline structure as well as initiating and maintaining cyclogenesis, an ENSO phase space plot ( Fig. 6 ) was also used to highlight ETT traits (bearing and departure longitudes as storms exit the tropics) in the range from 25° to 35°S ( Sinclair 2002 ), largely compiled using a Google Earth technique called Graphical Interpretation of Tracks (GrIT) documented in Diamond et al. (2012) . e. Constraints on analyses

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B. Timbal and R. Fawcett

raises the possibility that the observed increase in mean sea level pressure (MSLP) ( Timbal and Hope 2008 ) at the latitudes of southern Australia is driving the rainfall anomalies ( Nicholls 2010 ). Timbal and Hendon (2011) have shown that the observed rainfall deficiency across SEA could not be accounted for by naturally occurring modes of variability generated within the tropics such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean dipole, which were previously suggested as a plausible

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Tessa R. Vance, Tas D. van Ommen, Mark A. J. Curran, Chris T. Plummer, and Andrew D. Moy

farther south of the equator. In the LD SSS record, ~1750–1870 is a period of generally above-average LD SSS values, implying above-average rainfall for eastern Australia, particularly around 1830–60 ( Fig. 6 ). This is in general agreement with the findings of enhanced aridity in the tropics ( Lough 2011 ) and wetter conditions farther south ( Gergis et al. 2011 ), as the significant spatial representation of rainfall in Australia by the LD SSS record is generally restricted to the subtropical and

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