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Guido Vettoretti, Marc d’Orgeville, William R. Peltier, and Marek Stastna

may be transmitted meridionally into the tropics and zonally to other midlatitude locations. In particular, we will focus upon the impact of changes in AMOC on one of the main modes of interannual global climate variability, the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. ENSO, a coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamical process, is characterized by enhanced spectral variability of Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) with a time scale of 2–7 yr (for a recent review of the phenomenon itself, see

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Marc d’Orgeville and W. Richard Peltier

. 2004 ) argue that North Pacific decadal variability is in fact forced by variations in the tropical Pacific through atmospheric teleconnections. Some “tropical theories” argue specifically for a tropically forced mechanism where atmospheric teleconnections from the tropics are assumed to impact North Pacific SST decadal variability, either by a direct transfer of the tropical decadal variability ( Trenberth 1990 ), or by ENSO-related interannual forcing, which is subsequently integrated or

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Stephen D. Griffiths and W. Richard Peltier

effective latitudinal resolution increases poleward consistent with the convergence of meridians. At a typical resolution used here, with 720 points in each direction, the grid spacing smoothly varies from about 55 km in the tropics to 5 km around the coast of Greenland and in the Ross Sea. The shallow-water equations (1a) and (1b) are integrated forward in time from rest. At the m th time step, U m and ζ m are advanced via where U̇ includes all terms on the right-hand side of (1a) . Note

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Shawn J. Marshall and Martin J. Sharp

glacier surface during the summer months. Alternatively, one of the reviewers suggests that σ m and σ d could be modeled as functions of the monthly and daily temperature; for example, where T melt = 0°C and k is a constant, tuneable with a dataset like that of this study. This is a useful suggestion because this approach to the parameterization is generally applicable to environments such as the tropics, where a sinusoidal annual temperature cycle is inappropriate, and to inland areas of the

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