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Samson Hagos, Chidong Zhang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Steve Lang, Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Masaki Katsumata, Bill Olson, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

1. Introduction To the first order, the atmospheric general circulation redistributes energy and balances the horizontal and vertical gradients of diabatic heating. Since the earth’s atmosphere is primarily heated from the surface, convective processes are required to maintain the troposphere close to neutral stratification. On the large scale, the heating gradient between the tropics and extratropics is balanced by the poleward transport of the heat of the general circulation. However, the

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

subtropical atmospheres Figure 5 shows the 10-yr mean radiation budget at TOA and SFC (defined as positive in the downward direction) and the corresponding atmospheric flux divergence across the TRMM region that represents approximately two-thirds of the globe. Strong year-round solar insolation dominates the TOA radiation budget in the tropics, exceeding the combined outgoing LW and SW radiation by nearly 100 W m −2 over large portions of the tropical Pacific and Indian oceans. When compared with the

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Yasu-Masa Kodama, Masaki Katsumata, Shuichi Mori, Sinsuke Satoh, Yuki Hirose, and Hiroaki Ueda

proposed for obtaining LH profiles indirectly from TRMM PR observations, and discrepancies among the results of such algorithms are not significant ( Tao et al. 2006 ). The first objective of this study is a climatic description of warm rain in the tropics, subtropics, and part of the midlatitudes. Warm rain is defined as originating from clouds that are entirely warmer than freezing ( Beard and Ochs 1993 ). The contribution of warm rain to precipitation and LH is not negligible. Johnson et al. (1999

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

1. Introduction The release of latent heating (LH) during the formation of precipitation is of immense consequence to the nature of large- and small-scale atmospheric circulations, particularly in the tropics where various large-scale tropical modes controlled by LH persist and vary on a global scale. Latent heat release and its variations are without doubt the most important diabatic processes within the atmosphere, and thus play a central role in the earth’s water cycle. Latent heating is

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Arindam Chakraborty, and A. K. Mishra

over the entire tropics. This appears to be a major mismatch between model and TRMM-based results. The models place the level of maximum heating between 9 and 14 km in most places. A lot of those are nonrainy areas, such as the subtropical highs. The regions colored white in the TRMM-based estimates are nonrainy areas where no data were available. Over these regions the discrepancies arise from other components of physical parameterization such as the radiative transfer. These are large systematic

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K-M. Lau and H-T. Wu

that warm-rain processes are much more prevalent in the tropics than previously considered ( Short and Nakamura 2000 ; Lau and Wu 2003 ; Masunaga and Kummerow 2006 ; Jakob and Schumacher 2008 ). Shallow convection and cumulus congestus are found to be actively involved in vertical transport of heat and moisture prior to the onset of deep convection ( Benedict and Randall 2007 ). Atmospheric model experiments have shown that, in addition to stratiform and deep convective processes, heating and

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

structures for the MJO life cycle will be conducted in a follow-up study based on extended period of datasets. The organization of this paper is as follows: The datasets employed in this study are described in section 2 . In section 3 , we present the seasonal climatology of the heating structures over the global tropics based on both the TRMM estimates and two ECMWF model systems (hereafter EC models for brevity). Then the temporal variability of the heating structures, as well as partition of total

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

1. Introduction The latent heat released or consumed during phase changes of water substance is a major component of the atmospheric energy budget, and one that dominates other diabatic processes in the deep tropics (see Newell et al. 1969 ; Schaack et al. 1990 ). Latent heating is also responsible for the creation of available potential energy, one mechanism by which convective clouds can interact with the larger-scale atmospheric circulations of their environment ( Nitta 1970 , 1972

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

1993 ; Nigam et al. 2000 ). LH in precipitating systems is also associated with vertical energy transport throughout the troposphere ( Houze 1982 ). As a consequence, determination of the horizontal and vertical distribution of LH provides a basis for understanding the steady- and transient-state structure of the tropics. However, there is a critical limitation: the vertical distribution of LH is not well known. The dynamical response of the tropical atmosphere depends strongly on both the

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

1. Introduction A new age of active remote sensing of precipitation from space began with the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; Simpson et al. 1988 , 1996 ; Kummerow et al. 2000 ), which carries the first spaceborne radar [precipitation radar (PR); Kozu et al. 2001 ; Okamoto 2003 ; Okamoto and Shige 2008 ]. The PR has enabled us to directly obtain vertical profiles of precipitation over the global tropics ( Iguchi 2007 ; Iguchi et al. 2000 , 2009 ). The high

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