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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

. Bellon , 2019 : Physical mechanisms controlling the offshore propagation of convection in the tropics: 1. Flat island . J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. , 11 , 3042 – 3056 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2019MS001793 . 10.1029/2019MS001793 Cronin , T. W. , 2014 : On the choice of average solar zenith angle . J. Atmos. Sci. , 71 , 2994 – 3003 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0392.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0392.1 Cronin , T. W. , K. A. Emanuel , and P. Molnar , 2015 : Island precipitation

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

difficulty in modeling the interscale interactions between intraseasonal variability and diurnally forced mesoscale variability such as the sea-breeze circulation and mountain/valley winds. The diurnal cycle exerts a dominating influence on the MC. The diurnal precipitation cycle in the tropics is controlled by the response to radiative heating and the periodic organization of convection both onshore and offshore by mesoscale phenomena such as the sea-breeze circulation, land/valley breezes, and diurnal

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

). This diabatic heating sits at the nexus of mesoscale and intraseasonal-scale interactions in the tropics. The diabatic heating arising from cloud processes may be broadly categorized as convective or stratiform in origin, each of which have fundamentally different characteristic vertical latent heating profiles ( Ahmed et al. 2016 ). Deep convective precipitation is associated with heating throughout the troposphere, while deep stratiform precipitation from thunderstorm anvils is characterized by

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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

latent heat release in the free troposphere, shaping the circulation in the tropics and beyond (e.g., Neale and Slingo 2003 ). Despite this importance, global climate models (GCMs) often display large errors when simulating the diurnal cycle in this region ( Yang and Slingo 2001 ). The reasons may be ascribed to inadequately resolved complex topography and convective processes. Given the Maritime Continent’s remote impact over the planet, simulation errors can propagate on a global scale. A better

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

intraseasonal time scale ( Song and Wu 2018 ). The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the most prominent system among the intraseasonal oscillations in the tropics. It is manifested as eastward propagation of zonal wavenumber 1 on a time scale of 30–60 days ( Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ; Lin and Brunet 2009 ). The tropical heating in association with the MJO can induce tropospheric Rossby wave trains ( Jin and Hoskins 1995 ; Matthews et al. 2004 ). The MJO-induced Rossby wave train propagates poleward

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

1. Introduction Deep convective structures populate the tropics, provide the energetics that drive the large-scale tropical circulation, and interact with superimposed atmospheric waves ( Riehl and Malkus 1957 ; Lorenz 1969 ; Hendon and Liebmann 1991 ; Kiladis and Weickmann 1992 ; Chang 1995 ; Lane et al. 2001 ; Fierro et al. 2009 ). The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 , 1994 ; Zhang 2005 ) is one such disturbance, and while the MJO is commonly defined

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Xingwen Jiang, Jianchuan Shu, Xin Wang, Xiaomei Huang, and Qing Wu

associated with summer rainfall anomalies over SWC, especially eastern SWC, have been reported, mechanisms responsible for the associated atmospheric circulation anomalies remain unclear. Current prediction skill of season mean rainfall is largely dependent on the prediction skill of SST anomalies in the tropics (e.g., Kumar et al. 2013 ), which can affect prediction of extratropical climate by tropical convection anomalies excited by teleconnections ( Wang et al. 2016 ). Indeed, the anomalies in

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Andung Bayu Sekaranom and Hirohiko Masunaga

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC), as introduced by Ramage (1968) , defines an archipelagic area over the tropics and is primarily characterized as one of the highest precipitation areas on Earth. The MC covers a wide area that surrounds Southeast Asian countries between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, that is, peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, Timor, and New Guinea ( Qian 2008 ). Considerable amounts of precipitation occur over the MC because of a

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Hironari Kanamori, Tomo’omi Kumagai, Hatsuki Fujinami, Tetsuya Hiyama, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

water cycling over Maritime Continent. Ph.D. thesis, Nagoya university, 95 pp. Kanamori , H. , T. Yasunari , and K. Kuraji , 2013 : Modulation of the diurnal cycle of rainfall associated with the MJO observed by a dense hourly rain gauge network at Sarawak, Borneo . J. Climate , 26 , 4858 – 4875 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00158.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00158.1 Kikuchi , K. , and B. Wang , 2008 : Diurnal precipitation regimes in the global tropics . J. Climate , 21 , 2680 – 2696

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Kevin E. Trenberth and Yongxin Zhang

1. Introduction The sun–Earth geometry guarantees an excess of radiant heat received in the tropics and a deficit at high latitudes that are compensated by poleward meridional heat transports (MHTs) by the atmosphere and ocean. Atmospheric transports are reasonably well determined from atmospheric reanalyses, but ocean transports as a function of space and time have been difficult to determine reliably, although mean values have been available for some time ( Trenberth and Caron 2001

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