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Kenneth P. Bowman, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Dalon G. Stone

1. Introduction Precipitation is a key parameter of the earth’s weather and climate. The release of latent heat by condensation is one of the most important drivers of the global atmospheric circulation. Latent heat release is particularly important in the tropics, where the majority of the earth’s precipitation falls. Accurate measurement of precipitation is important for a number of scientific and societal applications, but it is a technically challenging problem, in part because of the

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G. Steinitz, A. Huss, A. Manes, R. Sinai, and Z. Alperson

364 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUMgI0Optimum Station Network in the Tropics1G. STEINITZ, A. HUss,~ A. Mx~r~s, R. SINAIa AND Z. ALPERSONResearch Division, Israel Meteorological Service, Bet Dagan, Israel(Manuscript received 8 February 1971)ABSTRACT A five-year record of upper air data from 145 stations in the northern tropics was used to determine thestatistical structure of

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Shafiqul Islam, Rafael L. Bras, and Kerry A. Emanuel

FEBRU^RV 1993 ISLAM ET AL. 297Predictability of Mesoscale Rainfall in the Tropics SHAFIQUL ISLAM *Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio RAFAEL L. BRASRalph M. Parsons Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts KERRY A. EMANUELDepartment of Earth, Atmosphere, and Planetary

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Sean P. F. Casey, Andrew E. Dessler, and Courtney Schumacher

. (1999) lacked the data to account for the limiting factors of midlevel congestus cloud-top heights. The explanation of congestus cloud-top heights has recently turned to anomalously warm and dry midtropospheric conditions noted by Johnson et al. (1996) . Dry air from aloft in higher latitudes enters the tropics and subsides in long filaments hundreds of kilometers in width. Yoneyama and Parsons (1999) related these layers to Rossby wave breaking and tracked the source back to midlatitude

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V. Sivakumar, H. Bencherif, N. Bègue, and A. M. Thompson

a decrease in the global tropopause pressure of ~1.82 hPa (10 yr) −1 based on the NCEP–National Center for Atmospheric Research analysis data from 1979 to 1997 and of ~2.16 hPa from 1979 to 2000. Schmidt et al. (2004) derived tropical tropopause parameters from the global positioning system and found that the tropopause had a strong meridional variability in structure on the basis of 3 yr (2001–03) of data. Over the tropics (30°S–30°N), they found that the tropopause and the associated

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E. M. Frisby and H. W. Sansom

AVRJL 1967 E. M. F R I S B Y A N D H. W. S A N S O M 339Hail Incidence in the Tropics E. M. FmSBY~ Raven Industries, Inc., Sioux Falls, S. Dak. AND H. W. SANSOMEast African Meteorological Department, Nalrobi, Kenya(Manuscript received 23 May 1966, in revised form 24 October 1966) This paper is a review and compilation of information concerning the incidence and frequency of

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David W. Martin and Michael R. Howland

JOURNAL OF CLIMATE AND APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLt. E25Grid History: A Geostationary Satellite Technique for Estimating Daily Rainfall in the Tropics DAVID W. MARTIN AND MICHAEL R. HOWLAND*Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, W153706(Manuscript received 12 May 1984, in final form ! August 1985) ABSTRACT A new technique is described for mimatin$ daily

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Shailendra Kumar and G. S. Bhat

, peak updrafts were observed above the 10-km level and land-based and sea-breeze convection had higher Z e than did oceanic and tropical-cyclone convection ( H10 ). The spatial coverage of ground radars and aircraft campaigns is very limited. It is not clear from past studies how the vertical profiles of hydrometeors in active Cb clouds compare in different parts of the tropics. This study is aimed at filling this gap in knowledge, and the main objective is to document the vertical structure of Z

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Virginie Capelle, Alain Chédin, Eric Péquignot, Peter Schlüssel, Stuart M. Newman, and Noelle A. Scott

these simulations is −0.1 ± 1.3 K. This error is consistent with recent reported errors ( Bosilovich 2006 ; Zhang et al. 2007 ; Li et al. 2011 ). Fig . 4. Mean and standard deviation of the difference between the retrieved emissivity spectrum and the true outcome for a set of 5000 simulations (nadir viewing, surface pressure at 1013 hPa). The standard deviation provides an estimate of the IASI-MSM-expected standard deviation. 4. Application of the IASI-MSM data to observations over the tropics

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Yuei-An Liou, Yu-Tun Teng, Teresa Van Hove, and James C. Liljegren

similarities are observable. First, the correlation between T m and T s is weaker in summer and stronger in winter. Second, 11.34 K of annual range of T m and 283.19 K of annual mean T m in the current study properly fall onto the corresponding region of the contour plot in Fig. 1 of RR1997. It is found that T m daily variability is smallest in the Tropics in RR1997. It is of no surprise that our regression differs from that presented of Bevis et al. (1992) . Furthermore, we found that the

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