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N. R. P. Harris, L. J. Carpenter, J. D. Lee, G. Vaughan, M. T. Filus, R. L. Jones, B. OuYang, J. A. Pyle, A. D. Robinson, S. J. Andrews, A. C. Lewis, J. Minaeian, A. Vaughan, J. R. Dorsey, M. W. Gallagher, M. Le Breton, R. Newton, C. J. Percival, H. M. A. Ricketts, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, G. J. Nott, A. Wellpott, M. J. Ashfold, J. Flemming, R. Butler, P. I. Palmer, P. H. Kaye, C. Stopford, C. Chemel, H. Boesch, N. Humpage, A. Vick, A. R. MacKenzie, R. Hyde, P. Angelov, E. Meneguz, and A. J. Manning

such as the degree to which the locations of the emissions coincide with strong convection can also have a strong influence on the overall flux ( Russo et al. 2015 ). To address these issues, the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 atmospheric research aircraft was deployed in Guam in January and February 2014 as part of the Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign, a large multi-institutional project funded by the U.K. Natural Environment Research

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Ronald B. Smith, Justin R. Minder, Alison D. Nugent, Trude Storelvmo, Daniel J. Kirshbaum, Robert Warren, Neil Lareau, Philippe Palany, Arlington James, and Jeffrey French

made on thermally driven island convection in the tropics (e.g., Carey and Rutledge 2000 ; Wilson et al. 2001 ; Sobel et al. 2011 ; Robinson et al. 2011 ). In contrast, the Dominica Experiment (DOMEX) was designed to study orographic precipitation in the tropics with cumulus triggering by forced ascent in unblocked flow. Dominica (15°N, 61°W) lies in the eastern Caribbean in the Lesser Antilles chain of volcanic islands ( Fig. 1 ). Its terrain is dominated by the 1.4-km peaks of Mt. Diablotin

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Lorenzo Tomassini

Convection–circulation interaction sets the tone in the tropics The interaction between moist convection and the atmospheric circulation in the tropics takes place on a large range of scales, from the mesoscale dynamics of organized convective systems ( Houze 1977 ; Houze and Betts 1981 ; Hartmann et al. 1984 ; Houze 1989 , 2004 ), to synoptic-scale tropical disturbances like convectively coupled waves ( Riehl 1945 ; Reed and Recker 1971 ; Lau and Lau 1990 ), and large-scale overturning

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David J. Nash and George C. D. Adamson

Historical documents from tropical regions contain weather information that can be used to reconstruct past climate variability, the occurrence of tropical storms, and El Niño and La Niña episodes. In comparison with the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes, the nature of long-term climatic variability in the tropics and subtropics is poorly understood. This is due primarily to a lack of meteorological data. Few tropical countries have continuous records extending back much further than the late

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L. L. Pan, E. L. Atlas, R. J. Salawitch, S. B. Honomichl, J. F. Bresch, W. J. Randel, E. C. Apel, R. S. Hornbrook, A. J. Weinheimer, D. C. Anderson, S. J. Andrews, S. Baidar, S. P. Beaton, T. L. Campos, L. J. Carpenter, D. Chen, B. Dix, V. Donets, S. R. Hall, T. F. Hanisco, C. R. Homeyer, L. G. Huey, J. B. Jensen, L. Kaser, D. E. Kinnison, T. K. Koenig, J.-F. Lamarque, C. Liu, J. Luo, Z. J. Luo, D. D. Montzka, J. M. Nicely, R. B. Pierce, D. D. Riemer, T. Robinson, P. Romashkin, A. Saiz-Lopez, S. Schauffler, O. Shieh, M. H. Stell, K. Ullmann, G. Vaughan, R. Volkamer, and G. Wolfe

Guam (13.5°N, 144.8°E) with research flights conducted during January and February 2014. The Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) used the high-altitude NASA Global Hawk (GH) to sample chemical and microphysical parameters at altitudes between ∼14 and 18 km [see ATTREX overview by Jensen et al. (2017) , this issue]. The Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) experiment used the U.K. FAAM BAe 146 research aircraft to measure a large suite of chemical tracers from the MBL up

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David K. Adams, Rui M. S. Fernandes, Kirk L. Holub, Seth I. Gutman, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Luiz A. T. Machado, Alan J. P. Calheiros, Richard A. Bennett, E. Robert Kursinski, Luiz F. Sapucci, Charles DeMets, Glayson F. B. Chagas, Ave Arellano, Naziano Filizola, Alciélio A. Amorim Rocha, Rosimeire Araújo Silva, Lilia M. F. Assunção, Glauber G. Cirino, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Bruno T. T. Portela, André Sá, Jeanne M. de Sousa, and Ludmila M. S. Tanaka

The Amazon Dense GNSS Meteorological Network provides high spatiotemporal resolution, all-weather precipitable water vapor for studying the evolution of continental tropical and sea-breeze convective regimes of Amazonia. The meteorology and climate of the equatorial tropics are dominated by atmospheric convection, which presents a rather challenging range of spatial and temporal scales to capture with present-day observational platforms ( Mapes and Neale 2011 ; Moncrieff et al. 2012 ; Zhang

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Manuel E. López

Various special methods of analyzing raobs in the tropics for forecasting purposes are tested and a combination of the best features found is recommended; this technique consists in plotting the 24-hour change of contours of the isobaric surfaces on a time or space cross-section. Some of the difficulties and limitations of such methods are pointed out.

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N. Hosannah, J. González, R. Rodriguez-Solis, H. Parsiani, F. Moshary, L. Aponte, R. Armstrong, E. Harmsen, P. Ramamurthy, M. Angeles, L. León, N. Ramírez, D. Niyogi, and B. Bornstein

improve observational capabilities and to better understand local convective processes using western observations led to the Convection, Aerosol, and Synoptic-Effects in the Tropics (CAST) campaign. CAST INSTRUMENTATION AND PROTOCOLS. CAST was conducted by researchers from multiple institutions including the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM), City College of New York (CCNY), NWS in San Juan, Purdue University (PU), and San Jose State University (SJSU) ( Fig. 2 ). Three CAST phases were

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Tetsuzo Yasunari

The concept of “monsoon year” is proposed as a unit year of climatic anomalies (i.e., the climatic year) in the tropics. This monsoon year is defined as one year starting just before the northern summer monsoon season. It is also argued that this climatic year in the tropics is physically based upon the characteristic nature of the coupled ocean/land/atmosphere system over the Asian monsoon/Pacific Ocean sector.

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Stephen Baxter, Gerald D Bell, Eric S Blake, Francis G Bringas, Suzana J Camargo, Lin Chen, Caio A. S Coelho, Ricardo Domingues, Stanley B Goldenberg, Gustavo Goni, Nicolas Fauchereau, Michael S Halpert, Qiong He, Philip J Klotzbach, John A Knaff, Michelle L'Heureux, Chris W Landsea, I.-I Lin, Andrew M Lorrey, Jing-Jia Luo, Andrew D Magee, Richard J Pasch, Petra R Pearce, Alexandre B Pezza, Matthew Rosencrans, Blair C Trewin, Ryan E Truchelut, Bin Wang, H Wang, Kimberly M Wood, and John-Mark Woolley
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