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A. J. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and J. L. Roberts

the transport by these small-scale (both spatial and temporal) features means that eddy transports are one of the most underobserved oceanographic properties. Wunsch’s (1999) global compilation of observational studies finds that zonally integrated eddy transports are generally small, but can be significant on small spatial scales. Regions of particular significance include the western boundary currents, the Tropics, and the ACC. These regions are consistent with Stammer’s (1998) Ocean

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D. E. Harrison and Mark Carson

deviations also are similar to their results in the western North Atlantic and North Pacific, and off the southeast coast of Australia, but can be quite different elsewhere. Overall, it appears that the broad range of standard deviations shown in Fig. 3 is reasonable, with regional values in excess of 3°C, in active boundary current and mesoscale eddy regions and in the interannually varying Tropics, and with minimum values around 0.5°C in the quieter parts of the ocean. Values south of about 30°S and

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Walter Munk and Bruce Bills

) and has a maximum near p = 1. Fig . 4. (top) Sketch of proposed radiative balance. (bottom) The assumed radiative flux density relative to a mean radiation, with a zero crossing at 36° latitude; in a steady state the integrated tropical excess equals the polar deficit, and the poleward transport of heat across the zero latitude: F Tropics = F polar = F . A variable obliquity modulates the incoming radiation by δF Tropics , δF polar and independently modulates the poleward transport by

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

–cooling cycle. In contrast, the variability in the Tropics originates from the changes of the flow field on seasonal time scales and from Rossby wave activity there. However, most of the enhanced variability on the western and eastern sides of the Pacific Ocean and in the Indian Ocean are associated with the 1997/98 ENSO event. In the Southern Ocean, enhanced variability southwest of Australia and upstream of Drake Passage is associated with high-latitude barotropic activity. Figure 6 shows the mean

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

( Arakawa and Lamb 1977 ) and its domain is nearly global (73°S–73°N) with a uniform zonal grid spacing of 1° longitude. The meridional grid spacing is 0.3° latitude in the Tropics (within 10° of the equator) that gradually increases to 1° in the extratropics (poleward of 22° latitude). The total horizontal grid dimension is 360 zonally and 224 meridionally. There are 46 vertical levels with 10-m spacing within 150 m of the surface, gradually increasing to 400-m spacing at depth. The model bathymetry is

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