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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, and Robert A. Tomas

frontal zones and the eastern equatorial Atlantic and Pacific, as expected from section 3 ( Fig. 11a ), but the values are weak elsewhere in the tropics and subtropics away from ocean frontal zones. The wind term dominates in the tropical warm pools and subtropical trade-wind regions ( Fig. 11b ) but is quite weak in higher latitudes (where the weighting for wind rapidly reduces; Figs. 10a,c ), while atmospheric humidity contributes mainly in the higher latitudes ( Fig. 11c ) where the humidity

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, Sarah Larson, and Robert A. Tomas

decoupled” and found that removing the wind-driven part led to reduced SST variability in midlatitudes, and almost zero variability in the deep tropics (due to removal of ENSO winds), but actually enhanced SST variability in the subtropics. In a pair of papers closely related to this current study, Buckley et al. (2014 , 2015 ) examined the processes driving ocean heat content variability in the North Atlantic in a data assimilating ocean model. In particular, the importance of surface heat flux

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

1. Introduction It is well established that coupled ocean–atmosphere variability in the tropics, including El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), exerts extensive influence on extratropical climatic conditions via atmospheric teleconnection. In contrast, the influence of extratropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on large-scale extratropical atmospheric circulation has long been believed to be insignificant in the presence of the prevailing dominant remote influence from the tropics

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Young-Oh Kwon and Terrence M. Joyce

1. Introduction One of the most fundamental aspects of earth's climate is the latitudinal dependence of the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative imbalance and resulting equator-to-pole heat transport by the ocean and atmosphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, the ocean and atmosphere carry nearly equal amounts of the heat northward in the tropics (up to ~15°N), while the atmosphere transports most of the heat poleward of ~40°N (e.g., Trenberth and Caron 2001 ). In between the two latitude bands, the

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Kohei Takatama, Shoshiro Minobe, Masaru Inatsu, and R. Justin Small

tropics as well as in western boundary current regions (e.g., Chelton et al. 2001 ; O’Neill et al. 2003 ; Chelton et al. 2004 ; Maloney and Chelton 2006 ). In another study, Minobe et al. (2008) proposed that convergence of near-surface wind due to the PA mechanism is proportional to the Laplacian of SLPs. This relationship also holds true in major western boundary current regions, both in observations ( Minobe et al. 2008 ; Shimada and Minobe 2011 ) and in recent high-resolution numerical

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Atsuhiko Isobe, Shin’ichiro Kako, and Shinsuke Iwasaki

Sea of Japan results mainly from a combination of the SST increase and depletion of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. The present study focused on atmospheric and oceanic responses triggered by this spring phytoplankton bloom during April through May. Investigating temporal evolution from onset of the bloom during the seasonal cycle to two months afterward is likely more straightforward than, for instance, ENSO modulation in the tropics, because the beginning of the response is clearly specified [see

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, and Shang-Ping Xie

1. Introduction The baiu is a quasi-stationary rainband over East Asia and the northwestern Pacific in early summer between June and July, often characterized as a subtropical front in moisture between the tropics and extratropics ( Ninomiya 1984 ; Ninomiya and Akiyama 1992 ). The baiu rainband shows multiscale structures from meso- to synoptic scales ( Ninomiya and Akiyama 1992 ). Because of the multiscale nature, the baiu rainband provides much needed rainfall to supply precious water to a

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

1. Introduction Owing to greater persistence of SST anomalies than atmospheric anomalies, a robust atmospheric response to oceanic forcing, if any, could contribute to improvement in seasonal forecast skill. Influence of extratropical SST anomalies on the large-scale atmospheric circulation has long been believed to be insignificant, in the presence of a prevailing remote influence from the tropics ( Lau 1997 ; Alexander et al. 2002 ) and large intrinsic atmospheric variability ( Frankignoul

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Fumiaki Ogawa and Thomas Spengler

directions: (a)–(d) Integrated upward surface sensible heat flux (MJ yr −1 ), (e)–(h) probability of the wind direction (%), (i)–(l) w ¯ 10 (m s −1 ) and (m)–(p) Δ T ¯ (K) for (left) 6-hourly, (left center) daily mean, (right center) weekly mean, and (right) monthly mean data for grid points equatorward of the Gulf Stream SST front at 40°N, 55°–45°W. The thick black line indicates the orientation of the SST front. Fig . 5. As in Fig. 4 , but for a grid point in the tropics at 15°N, 55°–45°W. Gray

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

identical lateral boundary conditions in the regional modeling approach effectively enhances the signal-to-noise ratio compared to the same size of AGCM ensemble simulations because remote influences from the other regions, including the tropics, are eliminated by the regional modeling approach. The only difference between the two ensembles of runs is the SST forcing field: one ensemble is forced with the high-resolution MW-IR SST [referred to as control simulations (CTRL)], while the other is forced

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