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Peter K. Snyder

land-cover changes inducing teleconnection behavior nor discussion of climate model representation of these teleconnection processes. Tropical landmasses are a large source of energy for the atmosphere and the general circulation is responsible for transporting this energy poleward to maintain the global radiation balance. Consequently, the tropics have a direct influence on the extratropical climate, and any changes to the tropical energy balance and the poleward atmospheric transport

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Grant L. Harley, James King, and Justin T. Maxwell

the tropics ( Fritts 1976 ). Located longitudinally between North Africa and the Yucatan, the southern Florida region is within the region of the easterly trade winds that carry African dust over the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean entrained by the Bermuda high. The deposition rate of dust over southern Florida is approximately 9.1 mg cm −2 yr −1 ( Prospero et al. 1987 ; Landing et al. 1995 ) with the bulk occurring primarily during the summer months (June–August), albeit with a high

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Ashley E. Van Beusekom, Grizelle González, and Maria M. Rivera

. Environ. Sci. Technol. , 40 , 4066 – 4073 , doi: 10.1021/es051650b . Hilbert , D. W. , B. Ostendorf , and M. S. Hopkins , 2001 : Sensitivity of tropical forests to climate change in the humid tropics of north Queensland . Austral Ecol. , 26 , 590 – 603 , doi: 10.1046/j.1442-9993.2001.01137.x . Hirsch , R. M. , and J. R. Slack , 1984 : A nonparametric trend test for seasonal data with serial dependence . Water Resour. Res. , 20 , 727 – 732 , doi: 10.1029/WR020i006p00727 . Hirsch

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A. L. Presbitero, C. W. Rose, B. Yu, C. A. A. Ciesiolka, K. J. Coughlan, and B. Fentie

investigations in the Tropics on the effect of slope steepness on soil loss (e.g., Dangler and El-Swaify 1976 ), generally indicating a somewhat exponential increase in soil loss with slope steepness ( Roose 1977 ). Much of this research has been in the context of determining the slope length/slope steepness factor in the Universal Soil Loss Equation ( Wischmeier and Smith 1978 ), which does not seek to describe erosion processes as do more recent models that seek some degree of physical realism ( Nearing

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Norbert Anselm, Oscar Rojas, Grischa Brokamp, and Brigitta Schütt

.0-4. R package, https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=nortest . Grubb , P. J. , 1977 : The maintenance of species-richness in plant communities: The importance of the regeneration Niche . Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. , 52 , 107 – 145 , https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1977.tb01347.x . Gu , D. , and S. G. H. Philander , 1995 : Secular changes of annual and interannual variability in the tropics during the past century . J. Climate , 8 , 864 – 876 , https://doi.org/10

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Gretchen Keppel-Aleks, Samantha J. Basile, and Forrest M. Hoffman

ecosystem fluxes in the tropics are large, between 50% and 60% of global primary productivity ( Beer et al. 2010 ), suggesting that even small changes in climate could have a large impact on global carbon uptake. Recent studies have suggested that improving observational inferences about tropical carbon–climate interactions is necessary, since these ecosystems may be near a high temperature threshold in which further increases to air temperature reduce net assimilation ( Doughty and Goulden 2008 ). Long

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Justin E. Bagley, Ankur R. Desai, Paul C. West, and Jonathan A. Foley

were most affected by the conversion to bare soil were those with the most robust vegetation: the boreal forest and tropical rain forest. Table 5. The impact of vegetation removal on sensible heat flux H , latent heat flux L , net radiation R n , near-surface air temperature T , specific humidity Q , and boundary layer height z i for PEGASUS and previous GCM studies for the Amazon and North American boreal forest regions. In the tropics, the decrease in net radiation was offset by the

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Lori T. Sentman, Elena Shevliakova, Ronald J. Stouffer, and Sergey Malyshev

, such as its exaggerated ENSO cycle and underpredicted precipitation over the Amazonian tropics, result in the increased interannual variability in the global carbon fluxes. Figure 3. Simulated global (land only) total terrestrial carbon pools for POTV (black), LU1500 (red), LU1600 (green), LU1700 (blue), LU1750 (cyan), and LU1800 (magenta) for (a) vegetation (living and dead biomass); (b) soil organic carbon; and (c) total (vegetation and soil) carbon in GtC. 4.3. Carbon response The overall carbon

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Alex C. Ruane and John O. Roads

tracking of storms with longer lifetimes in these regions. PERSIANN produces the highest percentage of variance in the narrow diurnal bands (especially in the Tropics) and is notable for having the largest land–sea contrasts in the high-frequency and synoptic categories (particularly in the Northern Hemisphere). CMORPH is missing a significant number of values over snow-covered regions in 2003. The replacement of these missing values with randomly distributed data generates a spectrum that is biased

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A. P. Ballantyne, P. A. Baker, J. Q. Chambers, R. Villalba, and J. Argollo

1. Introduction The short duration and scarcity of instrumental climate records from the tropics makes our knowledge of tropical climate variability over the last century very limited ( Trenberth et al. 2007 ). Thus, paleoclimate records from the tropics are critical for evaluating background climate variability and for documenting the response of tropical latitudes to anthropogenic climatic forcing over the twentieth century ( Evans and Schrag 2004 ). A great deal has been learned

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