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Alison M. Anders and Stephen W. Nesbitt

1. Introduction Large spatial gradients in precipitation are common in mountains (e.g., Anders et al. 2006 , 2007 ; Prat and Barros 2010 ; Giambelluca et al. 2013 ) and relevant to diverse fields including hydrology, climatology, hazards assessment, and geomorphology. In the midlatitudes, precipitation rates typically increase with elevation on windward-facing slopes, consistent with stable upslope flow driving progressive rainout ( Sawyer 1956 ; Smith 1979 ; Roe 2005 ). In the tropics

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Chuntao Liu

by using continuity test of nonzero 3-hourly rainfall data on each 0.25° × 0.25° grid point. The duration and total rain amount for the events lasting longer than 12 h are summarized. Then their contributions to the total 3B42 rainfall on each 0.25° × 0.25° grid are calculated. 3. Results Mean annual rainfall over TRMM PR observation area (35°S–35°N), tropics (20°S–20°N), and subtropics (35°–20°S and 35°–20°N) from 12 yr of monthly TRMM PR (3A25) and TMI (3A12) retrievals are listed in Table 1

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Chris Kidd, Erin Dawkins, and George Huffman

reasonably accurate for the cooler midlatitudes in which large-scale synoptic patterns are common ( Kidd et al. 2012 ), modeling skill decreases over the tropics where convective systems dominate. Here processes governing precipitation are typically at finer spatial and temporal scales ( Huffman et al. 2010 ), and the ability of the models to capture these finer spatiotemporal precipitation characteristics remains one of the critical unresolved issues in climatology ( Michaelides et al. 2009 ). As a

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Paul W. Miller and Craig A. Ramseyer

been aided by a newly developed convective potential index development specifically for the tropics, the Gálvez–Davison index (GDI). Daily values of this unitless composite parameter were shown to correlate with post–Hurricane Maria cloud cover over Puerto Rico ( Miller et al. 2019b ), whereas ERS mean GDI was shown to correspond strongly with coincident precipitation totals across the island ( Miller et al. 2019a ). Similarly, Ramseyer et al. (2019) found that daily GDI, when incorporated into a

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Tetsuzo Yasunari, Kazuyuki Saito, and Kumiko Takata

and the Tropics. A discussion and conclusions follow in section 5 . 2. Model and experimental design The model used in this study is version 5.7b of the Center for Climate System Research/National Institute for Environmental Studies/Frontier Research Center for Global Change atmospheric general circulation model (CCSR/NIES/FRCGC AGCM). The model is a three-dimensional hydrostatic primitive equation ( Haltiner and Williams 1980 ) model in spherical sigma coordinates. Overall features and

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Cuan Petheram, Paul Rustomji, Tim R. McVicar, WenJu Cai, Francis H. S. Chiew, Jamie Vleeshouwer, Thomas G. Van Niel, LingTao Li, Richard G. Cresswell, Randall J. Donohue, Jin Teng, and Jean-Michel Perraud

1. Introduction With the world’s population projected to grow from 6 billion (in 2000) to 9 billion people in 2050 ( UNESCO 2009 ), and the majority of this growth likely to occur in the tropics, particularly sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, growth in food production will need to mirror population growth ( UNESCO 2009 ). Consequently, there is a need to develop robust methods of performing large-scale water resource assessments to underpin the sustainable management of water in the face of

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Zed Zulkafli, Wouter Buytaert, Christian Onof, Bastian Manz, Elena Tarnavsky, Waldo Lavado, and Jean-Loup Guyot

studies (e.g., Espinoza et al. 2013) , necessitating a full exploration of the implications of the TMPA algorithm revisions on reducing data uncertainty. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze if, how, and where TMPA version 7 is superior to version 6 in the Peruvian Andes region from a hydrological perspective. As the region covers some of the major climates and gradients found in the tropics, the findings will have a high potential for extrapolation to many other tropical regions

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Ryan S. Padrón, Bradford P. Wilcox, Patricio Crespo, and Rolando Célleri

1. Introduction An in-depth knowledge of rainfall characteristics is crucial for myriad pursuits, including water resources management, ecohydrology, and meteorology. In many areas of the globe, but particularly in the tropics, rainfall data are scarce ( Wohl et al. 2012 ). Moreover, rainfall monitoring in highlands is quite rare, and especially so in tropical mountains ( Fig. 1 ), despite their important role as “water towers” for surrounding lowlands ( Viviroli et al. 2007 ). According to the

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Amin K. Dezfuli, Charles M. Ichoku, George J. Huffman, Karen I. Mohr, John S. Selker, Nick van de Giesen, Rebecca Hochreutener, and Frank O. Annor

, R. , V. Maggioni , D. Vila , and C. Morales , 2016 : Characteristics and diurnal cycle of GPM rainfall estimates over the central Amazon region . Remote Sens. , 8 , 544 , doi: 10.3390/rs8070544 . 10.3390/rs8070544 Pfeifroth , U. , J. Trentmann , A. H. Fink , and B. Ahrens , 2016 : Evaluating satellite-based diurnal cycles of precipitation in the African tropics . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 55 , 23 – 39 , doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0065.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0065.1 Prakash , S

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Elise Monsieurs, Dalia Bach Kirschbaum, Jackson Tan, Jean-Claude Maki Mateso, Liesbet Jacobs, Pierre-Denis Plisnier, Wim Thiery, Augusta Umutoni, Didace Musoni, Toussaint Mugaruka Bibentyo, Gloire Bamulezi Ganza, Guy Ilombe Mawe, Luc Bagalwa, Clairia Kankurize, Caroline Michellier, Thomas Stanley, Francois Kervyn, Matthieu Kervyn, Alain Demoulin, and Olivier Dewitte

1. Introduction Hydrometeorological hazards triggered by extreme rainfall, such as floods and rainfall-initiated landslides, pose a serious socioeconomic threat in many parts of the world and more particularly in mountainous areas ( Kjekstad and Highland 2009 ; Jacobs et al. 2016a ; Alfieri et al. 2017 ; Kumar et al. 2017 ). Moreover, in the context of ongoing climate change, it is estimated that rainfall extremes may intensify, particularly in the tropics ( IPCC 2013 ; Gariano and Guzzetti

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