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Carl Wunsch and Patrick Heimbach

estimation of any global average [see the sampling discussion in the appendix of Wunsch et al. (2007) ]. 7. Discussion Global solutions such as the ones used here describe a very large range of phenomena calling for details and explanation (keeping in mind the distortions implied by two-dimensional projections and the need to avoid interpreting the resulting Eulerian mean velocities as particle trajectories). We have touched on some of the more conspicuous fluctuations seen primarily in the tropics and

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Yafang Zhong and Zhengyu Liu

to explore the mechanism of the PMV using the modeling surgery approach of partial coupling (PC) and partial blocking (PB) ( Liu et al. 2002 ; Wu et al. 2003 ). All experiments were started from the CTRL at year 651 and integrated for 400 yr without flux correction. First, a new control [extratropical run with partial coupling applied in the tropics (PC-ET)] is performed with ocean–atmosphere coupling suppressed in the tropics with the PC surgery: equatorward of 20°, the SST to condition the

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J. A. Whitehead

the introduction, his original version had two well-mixed water-filled basins next to each other that were connected by tubes at the top and bottom. Heat and salt from adjacent baths diffused into each basin through sidewalls. One basin represented the tropics, with positive temperature and salinity diffused in through a sidewall, and the other represented the poles, with negative temperature and negative salinity diffused in through the sidewalls. Because the basins were well mixed, it is

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Paola Cessi and Christopher L. Wolfe

layer. From (14) , or equivalently (3) , the integral of the vertical velocity across the viscous boundary layer on the eastern boundary, of width δ , is given by (a similar relation can be obtained on the western boundary) The RHS can be calculated from the interior solution and it is shown in Fig. 15 . The eastern boundary vertical velocity is dominated by buoyancy-driven downwelling near the surface, with wind-driven upwelling confined to the tropics. The downwelling in the upper portion of

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R. M. Samelson

time-dependent response to changes in external forcing or parameters. This could be done by restoring the local time rate of change of the layer thickness in the mass conservation Eq. (3) . The dynamics of the southward return flow in the underlying fluid could be explicitly represented by including an active deep layer. A more detailed representation of upper thermocline structure in the midlatitudes and tropics could be explored, following Luyten et al. (1983) , to replace the present, single

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