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Nedjeljka Žagar, Ad Stoffelen, Gert-Jan Marseille, Christophe Accadia, and Peter Schlüssel

1. Introduction A lack of direct observations of wind profile measurements over a significant part of the earth has been recognized as the main missing component of the current operational observing system (e.g., Baker et al. 1995 ; World Meteorological Organization 2000 ). The problem is most severe in the tropics, where wind field information is also more important than mass information for the atmospheric dynamics and initialization of the numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (e

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December 1964Harold A. Bedient and Joseph Vederman565COMPUTER ANALYSIS AND FORECASTING IN THE TROPICS* HAROLD A. BEDIENT Lt. Col., U.S. Air Force and JOSEPH VEDERMANUS. Weather Bureau, Honolulu, HawaiiABSTRACT Comput,rr-prcpared analyses of the upper-air wind field are being made for several levels for the tropical PacificOcean arra of both t8he Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Computer analyses compare favorably with convcn-tional analyscs. The availability and accuracy of

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JUNE 1958 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW 201ANALYSIS AIDS FOR THE AMERICAN TROPICSL. F. HUBERTU. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.[Manuscript received February 12, 1958; revised April 14, 19581ABSTRACTAnalysis of upper-level charts for the American Tropics, which is a largely ocearic area, is difficult becausedata are inadequate and are likely to remain so in the foreseeable future. Despite tbis handicap and the unsatis-factory character of the map, the 500-mb. analyses are routinely used for many

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Gui-Ying Yang and Julia Slingo

/early evening over land. However, some studies also showed an afternoon maximum in precipitation and cloudiness over the oceans (e.g., McGarry and Reed 1978 ; Augustine 1984 ; Shin et al. 1990 ). Janowiak et al. (1994) provided an extensive analysis of the diurnal cycle of cold clouds in the global tropics based on 3-hourly geostationary satellite data that had been averaged on to a 2.5° latitude–longitude grid. Their results confirmed the existence of an early morning maximum in the extent of the

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Shira Rubin, Baruch Ziv, and Nathan Paldor

1. Introduction This paper describes the features of tropical plumes (TPs) that extend from the Tropics poleward and eastward, over the eastern part of North Africa to the eastern Mediterranean. McGuirk et al. (1987 , 1988 ) were the first to present an objective definition of a TP: “continuous cloud band, at least 2000 km in length, crossing 15°N” and also coined the term “tropical plume.” The intersection of the TP with the ITCZ is usually called the “origin point” ( McGuirk et al. 1987

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IMay 1966J. Vederman, G. H. Hirata, and E. J. Manning337FORECASTING IN THE TROPICS WITH A BAROTROPIC ATMOSPHERIC MODELJOSEPH VEDERMAN, GEORGE H. HIRATA, AND EDMUND J. MANNINGESSA, Weather Bureau, Honolulu, HawaiiABSTRACTA series of barotropic forecasts has been prepared for several upper-air levels in the tropical Pacific. Thegoverning equation is the vorticity equation for a harotropic non-divergent ntrnosphere. The input dah are st8ream-function values derived from an objective tropical wind

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II. Variation of the Tropospheric Mean Structure With Season and Differences Between Hemispheres


transports and in the mean meridional circulation.The model indicates how the annual oscillation of temperature in t,he equatorial lower stratosphere, with lowesttemperatures in January, derives from the difference between the upward branches of the July and t.he January winterhemisphere Hadlep cell. The semiannual oscillation in winds and temperatures in the Tropics is largely accounted forby the model in terms of the longitudinally averaged tropical rain belt migrating between summer hemispheres.1

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T. N. Krishnamurti, C. Gnanaseelan, and A. Chakraborty

introduced by reducing the blackbody emittance for high clouds (partial blackbody). Those artificial fixes did produce the correct phases for rain over the eastern Tibetan Plateau (afternoon hours) and the eastern foothills of Himalayas (early morning hours). Those fixes in fact turned out to be disastrous for the rest of the Tropics especially over Brazil where the model failed to provide the afternoon showers. This demonstrated some of the modeling problems for the diurnal change. In general the

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Arthur F. Kruger and Jay S. Winston

VOL. 103, NO. 6 M O NTHLY \VEATHE-R R EVI E\V ' JUNE 1975Large-Scale Circulation Anomalies Over the Tropics during 1971-72 ART~U-R F. K~tmo~ AND JAY S. WINSTONWational Environmental Satellite Service, 2V OAA, Washington, D. C. 20233(Manuscript received 12 November 1974; in revised form 7 February 1975)ABSTRACT The authors have been monitoring the large-scale circulation over the tropics since 1968 through use

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April 1966Walter James Koss231OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE HEIGHT DATA FOR THE TROPICSWALTER JAMES KO%National Hurricane Research Laboratory, ESSA, Miami, Fla.ABSTRACTA method for objectively analyzing the geopotential height field on a constant pressure surface using reportedupper-air data is described. Special attention is given to the analysis in data sparse regions, in particular, the Tropics.Wind-height relationships are used to augment the reported data by extrapolation of the reported

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