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Takuji Kubota, Shinta Seto, Masaki Satoh, Tomoe Nasuno, Toshio Iguchi, Takeshi Masaki, John M. Kwiatkowski, and Riko Oki

be more than 10 times larger for cases with the DPR-observable surface precipitation than those in all cases over the tropics. The CLWP values with the DPR-observable surface precipitation were larger over the tropics than those over the higher latitudes. Figure 5 shows a histogram of occurrences for the CLWP comparing all cases and cases with the DPR-observable surface precipitation. The two lines were almost the same when the CLWP was more than 500 g m −2 . Thus, the histogram indicated

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Atsushi Hamada and Yukari N. Takayabu

1. Introduction A common understanding of precipitation in the tropics and subtropics has been developed based on more than 16 years of observations by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, which was launched in November 1997. One of the instruments on board the TRMM is a precipitation radar (PR) that can probe three-dimensional structures of precipitation, which has advanced the understanding of precipitation systems. The TRMM PR has also played an extraordinary role in

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Christian D. Kummerow, David L. Randel, Mark Kulie, Nai-Yu Wang, Ralph Ferraro, S. Joseph Munchak, and Veljko Petkovic

1. Introduction The Goddard profiling (GPROF) algorithm was first developed in the early 1990s to retrieve surface rainfall and its vertical structure from spaceborne passive microwave observations ( Kummerow and Giglio 1994 ). The impetus for that work came from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) ( Simpson et al. 1988 ) that was seeking to quantify not only the surface rainfall but also the three-dimensional structure of latent heat release in the tropics. While the primary

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Stephen Joseph Munchak, Sarah Ringerud, Liang Liao, Ziad Haddad, Bartie L. Kelley, and Steven F. McLaughlin

, the agreement between computed and observed temperatures is good. Nevertheless, regional biases are apparent, with warm biases in the subtropical ocean regions and cold biases outside the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere. Table 1. Statistical measures quantifying the agreement between computed and observed brightness temperatures over oceans. Measures include correlation coefficient, bias, and root-mean-square error, and are derived using data from 1 Sep 2014 to 30 Nov 2014. H denotes

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Jun Awaka, Minda Le, V. Chandrasekar, Naofumi Yoshida, Tomohiko Higashiuwatoko, Takuji Kubota, and Toshio Iguchi

, F. , and Zawadzki I. , 1995 : Long-term radar observations of the melting layer of precipitation and their interpretation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 52 , 838 – 851 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<0838:LTROOT>2.0.CO;2 . Funk, A. , Schumacher C. , and Awaka J. , 2013 : Analysis of rain classifications over the tropics by version 7 of the TRMM PR 2A23 algorithm . J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 91 , 257 – 272 , doi: 10.2151/jmsj.2013-302 . Klaassen, W. , 1988 : Radar observations and

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Eun-Kyoung Seo, Sung-Dae Yang, Mircea Grecu, Geun-Hyeok Ryu, Guosheng Liu, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Yoo-Jeong Noh, Ziad Haddad, and Jinho Shin

1. Introduction Two-thirds of the global rainfall amount falls within the tropics, which makes the measurement of tropical rainfall very important in understanding the weather and climate (e.g., Simpson et al. 1988 ). The launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite in 1997 marked a new era in precipitation retrievals from space. TRMM carries two major instruments dedicated to rain retrievals: the multichannel microwave radiometer [TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI)] and the

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Olivier Hautecoeur and Régis Borde

1. Introduction Atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) are derived from satellites by tracking clouds or water vapor features in consecutive satellite images. Because they constitute the only upper-level wind observations with good global coverage for the tropics, midlatitudes, and polar areas, especially over the large oceanic areas, the AMVs are continuously assimilated into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to improve the forecast score. AMVs are extracted routinely by a number of

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Tomoaki Mega and Shoichi Shige

and geometric data of the footprint, to make the coastal area of the land–ocean–coast flag smaller. 2. Data The analysis presented herein is based on observations from the TMI because the location and time of its observation are similar to the PR. The TMI is one of five sensors aboard the TRMM satellite, which was launched into low-Earth orbit in November 1997 to provide data on the characteristics of precipitation in the tropics and subtropics (35°S–35°N). The PR is a single-frequency (13.8 GHz

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