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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

differences in the deep tropics ( Munsell and Zhang 2014 ), downstream midlatitude ridge amplification driven by diabatic processes ( Torn et al. 2015 ), and model configuration ( Bassill 2014 ; Magnusson et al. 2014 ). As with track, ensemble forecasts of cyclone intensity during ET can be sensitive to both tropical and midlatitude synoptic-scale features in the TC environment (e.g., Doyle et al. 2011 ). Together, these studies highlight that ET forecast sensitivities vary from one event to the next

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Dayton G. Vincent

are in good agreement withthose given by Sadler et al. (1987). The latter is anexcellent reference of the long-term mean monthly distributions of MSLP, surface wind and wind stress, andsea surface temperature in the Tropics and subtropics. As stated in the introduction, the SPCZ contains oneof the earth's most expansive and persistent cloudbands. Early evidence of this was given by Streten(1973) who used 5-day averages of satellite mosaicsover a 3-yr period (1968-71) in the Southern Hemisphere

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Roland A. Madden and Paul R. Julian

, and circulation may also affectmidlatitudes. Anderson and Rosen (1983) have shownthat some of the 40-50-day variations in relative atmospheric angular.momentum propagates up and outof the tropics to midlatitudes. Nevertheless, it is ourcontention that robust midlatitude responses are hardto find. That it is likely that the "average" responsedoes not regularly occur due to the complexities of theever-changing background flows of extratropical latitudes, This section describes some work on

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T. N. Krishnamurti

motion field around the global tropics, in thelower and the upper troposphere, describes the prominent place of the monsoon in the global circulations.Figures I and 2 show these climatological flow patternsat the 850 and 200 mb levels. In these illustrations wehave emphasized the lower-tropospheric confluentasymptote as well as the upper-level diffiuence patternsin the monsoon region. The lower-tropospheric conc 1985 American Meteorological SocietySEPTEMBER 1985 T

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John Molinari and Michael Dudek

isolated cumulonimbus clouds. The authorssuggested that the mesoscale heating profile representsthe dominant mode of diabatic heating in the tropics.Taken together, the studies reviewed in this sectionindicate that mesoscale organization of convectioncannot be overlooked. Mesoscale organization is also present in the pressureand wind fields, often with rather complex verticalstructure. It appears, however, that this structure develops primarily as a result of the diabatic sources andsinks associated

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Andrew Staniforth and Jean Côté

thegeopotential. Thus where this condition is violated,such a time discretization is likely to be unstable, andthis is most likely to occur in the tropics where thegeopotential is generally largest. We believe that theqb* of the Bates et al. (1990) integrations (without divergence damping) is probably an average value of thegeopotential (rather than its maximum value) and thusviolates this stability criterion. An examination of thedivergence-damping-free result (given in Higgins andBates 1990) of the Bates et

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Markus Gross, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Peter M. Caldwell, David L. Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, Diana R. Thatcher, Nigel Wood, Mike Cullen, Bob Beare, Martin Willett, Florian Lemarié, Eric Blayo, Sylvie Malardel, Piet Termonia, Almut Gassmann, Peter H. Lauritzen, Hans Johansen, Colin M. Zarzycki, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Ruby Leung

transport as modeled by a convection scheme. The downward branch would be determined by mass continuity and the need to maintain balance in the environment. In the tropics, this leads to spreading of the response over a wide area. This process is illustrated using a convection-permitting simulation performed as part of the Earth System Model Bias Reduction and Assessing Abrupt Climate Change project (EMBRACE; http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/99891_en.html ). The simulation uses a configuration

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

outflows. Mon. Wea. Rev , 104 , 1429 – 1440 . Grossman , R. L. , 1982 : An analysis of vertical velocity spectra obtained in the BOMEX fair-weather, trade-wind boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor , 23 , 323 – 357 . Guichard , F. , D. Parsons , and E. Miller , 2000 : Thermodynamic and radiative impact of the correction of sounding humidity bias in the tropics. J. Climate , 13 , 3611 – 3624 . Haase , S. P. , and R. K. Smith , 1984 : Morning glory wave clouds in Oklahoma: A

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

major producers of both cloud cover and precipitation in the tropics and subtropics, the correct prediction of tropical cyclone behavior in global climate models will depend ultimately on the accuracy with which tropical cyclone clouds are represented. For these reasons, it seems appropriate to synthesize and organize the available information on the diverse cloud processes within tropical cyclones. This review presents a dynamical and physical description of the main types of clouds in a tropical

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Peter Jan van Leeuwen

circulation model Océan Parallélisé (OPA) of 2° resolution with meridional refinement to 0.5° in the tropics. Observations were obtained from a model run with mixing coefficients derived from altimeter sea surface height variability observations. About 10 000 coefficients were estimated using 128 members. The method worked, but showed that more particles were needed for convergence. [Actually, to obtain good estimates the observations had to be assimilated locally (i.e., only observations within a 5

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