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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

regionally coupled ocean–atmosphere modeling efforts have attempted to investigate TIW-related mesoscale air–sea interactions in the tropics (e.g., Small et al. 2003 ; Seo et al. 2006 ; Xie et al. 2007 ). Because of the substantial difficulty of realistically simulating the TIW-related atmospheric responses, mesoscale coupled air–sea modeling efforts are still in the early stage. Although observations show two-way interactions between the ocean and atmosphere in association with TIWs, the feedback

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M. Issa Lélé and Peter J. Lamb

Sahara Desert. At the surface, the wind direction discontinuity is characterized by pronounced temperature and humidity gradients that migrate seasonally northward then southward, lagging somewhat the zenith angle of the sun in the northern tropics. Between the surface and about 700 hPa, the ITF slopes upward to the south at inclinations between 1:100 and 1:400 ( Hastenrath and Lamb 1977 ; Hastenrath 1991 , 166–174) and is the upper boundary of the meridionally migrating wedge of monsoon air. The

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