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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Jiangfeng Wei, Michael G. Bosilovich, and David M. Mocko

understand how upstream surface changes may affect local hydrology and to potentially aid prediction (e.g., Dirmeyer and Kinter 2010 ; Bagley et al. 2012 ; Spracklen et al. 2012 ). There are three basic approaches to estimating the connection between surface evaporation from specific locations and subsequent precipitation of that water. The simplest, but most limited in capabilities, is the bulk method, which relies on regional atmospheric moisture budgets at relatively long time scales, typically 1

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Richard Seager, Lisa Goddard, Jennifer Nakamura, Naomi Henderson, and Dong Eun Lee

, and Hurricane Irene, made 2011 the costliest year to date in terms of weather- and climate-related disasters, reemphasizing the vulnerability of the United States to extreme weather and climate events. Meanwhile, in Mexico in November 2011 the Secretary for Social Development reported that drought had left 2.5 million Mexicans with insufficient drinking water ( http://www.radioformula.com.mx/notas.asp?Idn=210675 ) and shortages of basic foodstuffs led to a large increase in imports from the United

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Hongshuo Wang, Jeffrey C. Rogers, and Darla K. Munroe

values of these indices have an average value of zero and a unit standard deviation. One of the important characteristics of the SPI and SPEI lies in their multiple time scales that can be used to evaluate drought from the viewpoint of temporal accumulation of moisture anomalies. The PDSI is based on a water budget model from the water balance equation ( Palmer 1965 ) that incorporates precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and recharge. The PDSI itself depends on a two-layer bucket model of the

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Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Iliana E. Mladenova, Jeffrey B. Basara, and Mark Svoboda

, to infer the surface energy budget. Use of time-differential observations reduces model sensitivity to errors in absolute temperature retrievals resulting from sensor calibration and atmospheric correction. A simple model of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth ( McNaughton and Spriggs 1986 ) is used to provide closure to the time-integrated energy balance equations over the morning period, alleviating the need for specifying near-surface boundary conditions in air temperature, which often

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Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Jason Otkin, Xiwu Zhan, Kingtse Mo, Mark Svoboda, Brian Wardlow, and Agustin Pimstein

1. Introduction Drought monitoring is a complex and multifaceted endeavor, warranting use of multiple tools. Drought impacts can be manifested in all components of the hydrologic budget: in water supply terms (precipitation), in storage (soil moisture, snowpack, groundwater, and surface water), and in exchange or flux terms (evapotranspiration, snowmelt, drainage/recharge, runoff, and streamflow). Each of these components has relevance to specific groups of stakeholders, and each has a unique

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Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, David Mocko, Rolf Reichle, Yuqiong Liu, Kristi R. Arsenault, Youlong Xia, Michael Ek, George Riggs, Ben Livneh, and Michael Cosh

, doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2005.08.004 . Arsenault, K. , Houser P. , De Lannoy G. , and Dirmeyer P. , 2013 : Impacts of snow cover fraction data assimilation on modeled energy and moisture budgets . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 118 , 7489–7504 , doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50542 . Bales, R. , Molotch N. , Painter T. , Dettinger M. , Rice R. , and Dozier J. , 2006 : Mountain hydrology of the western United States . Water Resour. Res. , 42 , W08432 , doi: 10.1029/2005WR004387 . Barlage

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Eric F. Wood, Siegfried D. Schubert, Andrew W. Wood, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Kingtse C. Mo, Annarita Mariotti, and Roger S. Pulwarty

et al. 2007 ) with profound economic, social, and environmental impacts. The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) has recorded droughts in the United States having severe economic impacts (more than $1 billion in damages) during 16 of the 21 years from 1980 to 2011, with an estimated annual average direct drought loss of $9.5 billion (adjusted to 2011 dollars; Smith and Katz 2013 ). It should be noted that these estimates do not take into account secondary impacts affecting water resources

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