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Vivek K. Arora, George J. Boer, Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael Eby, Chris D. Jones, James R. Christian, Gordon Bonan, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, Patricia Cadule, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Keith Lindsay, Jerry F. Tjiputra, and Tongwen Wu

vegetation height) and its spatial distribution (through competition between plant functional types) affect the surface energy and water balance to some extent. Changes in absorption of solar radiation can also affect climate through changes in phytoplankton and chlorophyll although phytoplankton growth parameterizations usually do not include a strong dependence on CO 2 . The term is the change in atmosphere CO 2 amount (Pg C), which is the same for the biogeochemically, radiatively, and fully

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, and Colm Sweeney

extent the equatorward Ekman transport ( Böning et al. 2008 ; Ito et al. 2009 ). In coarse-resolution models, overly strong winds can disrupt this balance and drive a northward net meridional transport. North of the Polar Front where intermediate water forms through convective processes ( Speer et al. 2000 ), meridional transport is expected to be small in the near-surface layer of the ocean. However, in the four models with stronger winds east of 65°W, the austral winter-mean Eulerian ocean surface

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Pierre Friedlingstein, Malte Meinshausen, Vivek K. Arora, Chris D. Jones, Alessandro Anav, Spencer K. Liddicoat, and Reto Knutti

between CO 2 emissions and CO 2 concentration. A lack of understanding and observations of physical feedbacks reflected in model spread is indeed the main source of uncertainty in long-term climate projections (e.g., Hawkins and Sutton 2009 ). While the initial Planck response to an increase in atmospheric CO 2 is known, the cascade of feedbacks arising from the warming-induced changes in water vapor, lapse rate, clouds, snow, and ice is far from being completely understood ( Bony et al. 2006

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Jörg Schwinger, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Christoph Heinze, Laurent Bopp, James R. Christian, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Chris D. Jones, David Salas-Mélia, Joachim Segschneider, Roland Séférian, and Ian Totterdell

and Δ T through feedback parameters B and Γ. None of these two feedback equations includes an explicit time dependence of the system response: that is, the carbon stocks or fluxes are assumed to balance immediately with new values of CO 2 and T . Since, for our purposes, it is more convenient to use integrated quantities, that is, changes in the total ocean carbon stock, we stick to the Friedlingstein et al. (2006) approach for this study. However, the considerations that follow in this

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Lifen Jiang, Yaner Yan, Oleksandra Hararuk, Nathaniel Mikle, Jianyang Xia, Zheng Shi, Jerry Tjiputra, Tongwen Wu, and Yiqi Luo

results for carbon balance depending on the choice of forcing from the general circulation models (GCMs; Ahlström et al. 2012 , 2013 ). GCMs explained the majority of uncertainty in the projected twenty-first-century terrestrial carbon balance ( Ahlström et al. 2013 ). Climate forcing alters the carbon budget through influencing the simulated NPP and residence time, highlighting again the urgent demand to improve model representations of NPP and residence time. 5. Summary This study evaluated the

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Pu Shao, Xubin Zeng, Koichi Sakaguchi, Russell K. Monson, and Xiaodong Zeng

: Forest soil CO 2 flux: Uncovering the contribution and environmental responses of ectomycorrhizas . Global Change Biol. , 13 , 1786 – 1797 , doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01383.x . Houghton , R. A. , 2007 : Balancing the global carbon budget . Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. , 35 , 313 – 347 , doi:10.1146/ . Houghton , R. A. , 2010 : How well do we know the flux of CO 2 from land use change? Tellus , 62 , 337 – 351 . Houghton , R. A. , 2012 : Historic

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V. Brovkin, L. Boysen, V. K. Arora, J. P. Boisier, P. Cadule, L. Chini, M. Claussen, P. Friedlingstein, V. Gayler, B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, G. C. Hurtt, C. D. Jones, E. Kato, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, F. Pacifico, J. Pongratz, and M. Weiss

signal coincides spatially with regions of strongest forcing and because the signal is in line with our knowledge of LULCC effects on local energy and water balance. For tropical and subtropical regions, the seasonality of the response of near surface air temperature for regions where LULCC exceeds 10% is small ( Fig. B1 ). Fig . 5. Maps of difference in mean annual near-surface air temperature (K) between ensemble averages of the (top)–(bottom) RCP and LUCID simulations for (left) RCP2.6 and (right

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A. Anav, P. Friedlingstein, M. Kidston, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, P. Cox, C. Jones, M. Jung, R. Myneni, and Z. Zhu

region, reflecting the inability of these models to reproduce the interannual variations in the hydrological cycle ( Lin 2007 ; Scherrer 2011 ); as already suggested by Wild and Liepert (2010) inadequacies in the simulation of surface radiation balance may contribute to the poor simulation of IAV during the twentieth century. In addition, shortcomings in the representation of the natural variability in atmosphere–ocean exchanges of energy and water that result in variations of convection and

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