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Mustafa Gokmen, Zoltan Vekerdy, Maciek W. Lubczynski, Joris Timmermans, Okke Batelaan, and Wouter Verhoef

redistributed total P , which incorporated the transfer of the SW generated from the wet period into the dry period when surface water irrigation was provided (step 4). Finally, a spatially distributed yearly water balance was obtained by subtracting the yearly total ET from the redistributed yearly total P ( Fig. 6 ). Fig . 6. Flowchart for determining the yearly water balance in the Konya basin. Afterward, to assess the budget closure at the locations (pixels) of GW observation wells, Δ S RS estimated

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Chiara Corbari and Marco Mancini

1. Introduction Calibration and validation of continuous distributed energy water balance models is a challenging task in hydrology and at the same time a complex issue owing to the difficulties related to the definition of which variables are representative of the single process and how reliable they are ( Beven and Binley 1992 ; Refsgaard 1997 ; Rabuffetti et al. 2008 ; Brath et al. 2004 ). In flood and water balance simulations, the exact representation of the surface boundary conditions

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Rafael Pimentel, Javier Herrero, Yijian Zeng, Zhongbo Su, and María J. Polo

–45 . Kolberg, S. A. , and Gottschalk L. , 2006 : Updating of snow depletion curve with remote sensing data . Hydrol. Processes , 20 , 2363 – 2380 , doi: 10.1002/hyp.6060 . Kustas, W. P. , Rango A. , and Uijlenhoet R. , 1994 : A simple energy budget algorithm for the snowmelt runoff model . Water Resour. Res. , 30 , 1515 – 1527 , doi: 10.1029/94WR00152 . Kuusisto, E. , 1986 : The energy balance of a melting snow cover in different environments. IAHS Publ., 155, 37–45. [Available

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Donghai Zheng, Rogier van der Velde, Zhongbo Su, Martijn J. Booij, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, and Jun Wen

surface energy balance and soil thermodynamic will be introduced briefly below, while the information about water budget (e.g., runoff and soil moisture) and cold season (e.g., snow and frozen ground) simulations in the Noah LSM can be found in Schaake et al. (1996) and Koren et al. (1999) . The surface energy balance equation in Noah LSM can be written as where and are the downward and upward shortwave radiation (W m −2 ), respectively; is the downward longwave radiation (W m −2 ); T sfc

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