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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

climatological March mixed layer depths [see Qiu and Huang (1995) , their Figs. 5b and 9b]: mixed layers typically reach 250 m for the GS versus 150 m for the KE. In analogy with a water reservoir, a system with a large amount of storage H will differ markedly from one with little storage, which can be seen by examining a simple heat budget, ∂ H /∂ t = Q + advection. In the limit of no storage, heat advection (lateral inflow) must balance heat loss Q through the surface. Consistent with this

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Hailan Wang, Siegfried Schubert, Max Suarez, and Randal Koster

moisture budget analysis reveals how precipitation responses over the United States are balanced by evaporation responses and changes in atmospheric transient and stationary moisture flux convergences, a technique that has been widely used in the past (e.g., Roads et al. 2002 ). The budget analysis is based on the vertical integral of the equation for atmospheric water vapor in pressure coordinates: where q is specific humidity, V is the three-dimensional wind in pressure coordinates, E is

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

Predictability (CLIVAR) Mode Water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE; http://www.climode.org/ ) field programs. In addition, a comprehensive set of diagnostics—mean, standard deviations, leading empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), etc.—of various variables in these two WBCs is available online ( http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/WBC/ ). The leading modes of extratropical atmospheric variability, specifically the Pacific–North America (PNA) teleconnection (Wallace and Gutzler 1981) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

simulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 30 , 2798 – 2813 . Yasuda , T. , and K. Hanawa , 1997 : Decadal changes in the mode waters in the midlatitude North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 27 , 858 – 870 . Yasuda , T. , and Y. Kitamura , 2003 : Long-term variability of North Pacific subtropical mode water in response to spin-up of the subtropical gyre. J. Oceanogr. , 59 , 279 – 290 . Zhang , X. , and J. Zhang , 2001 : Heat and freshwater budgets and pathway in the Arctic Mediterranean

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